Brain research and its relationship to learning disabilities

Learning Disabilities Research Studies: Findings from NICHD funded Projects

brain research and its relationship to learning disabilities

A greater understanding of the current brain research and how it relates to students Dyslexia is a specific learning disability in reading that often affects spelling as well. They will not be very accurate in using letter-sound relationships in. The study took place at Fairley House, a specialist day school for children with specific learning difficulties in London. After careful safety. It is important for teachers and parents to understand that maturation of the brain influences learning readiness. For teachers, this is especially important when.

Brain Biology of Learning Disabilities

Careful consideration is also given for children under five years. Sometimes learning difficulties may not develop, or may not become obvious, until a few months or even years later. This is called a 'delayed or late effect'. The Brainy Bag is available to all children diagnosed with a brain tumour. Each bag is slightly different as it includes items appropriate to the age of the child.

Order yours here What learning difficulties might my child have? Each child is different and much will depend on where their tumour is in the brain. This is because different parts of the brain control different parts of learning. The age of your child and the size of their tumour may also affect their type of learning difficulty.

Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us?

Common learning difficulties in people with brain tumours include issues with: All these can be made worse by fatigue extreme tiredness - another common issue for people who have or had a brain tumour. This is understandably frustrating for your child, and may cause anxiety and stress.

Time away from their lessons and friends can affect them emotionally, and negatively impact their learning. As a result, they may need support to cope with the emotional impacts of having a learning difficulty before the difficulty itself can be addressed. It is important to remember that having learning difficulties does not mean that your child is now less intelligent, but rather that they have difficulty recalling or processing information.

How will my child's learning difficulties be identified? There are various ways your child's learning difficulties may come to light.

These may include your own observations as a parent or carer, or from teacher observations and reports. Some treatment centres offer 'neuropsychological testing' before and after treatment to check for any early signs of learning difficulties. Speak to your child's health team about this. It may take some time for a learning difficulty to be identified if it is subtle. It is also possible that a learning difficulty may become more pronounced as your child grows and attempts more complex tasks.

What support is available to help my child? There are several sources of support to help your child with their social and educational development. Educational support To help give parents and teachers and, where appropriate, the young person themselves the information, knowledge and confidence to work together to overcome these issues, The Brain Tumour Charity has created a set of practical, downloadable education resources.

Their role is to make sure that any support your child may need is put in place before or when they need it. They can co-ordinate the support for your child and involve other professionals, such as educational psychologists.

Sometimes lack of awareness of rarer health conditions, such as brain tumours, and their effects on learning ability adds to the problem. In addition, these problems may only become evident many years after treatment, which other professionals may not realise. As a result parents may have to be proactive in making sure their child gets the support they need.

You can use our education resources with your child's teachers to reduce the negative impact that brain tumours may have on your child's educational life. They include effective support strategies and plans, as well as legal rights and responsibilities. Support from an educational psychologist Educational psychologists help children or young people who are having problems learning, social and emotional that are getting in the way of their learning and of taking part in school and other activities.

They will watch and talk to your child and give them various tests. From this they work out what difficulties your child is having and work with you, your child and the teachers to put measures in place to support your child's learning.

This could include one-to-one support in certain subjects, advising teachers on teaching styles and techniques that may help your child, or referring on to another health professional, such as a speech and language therapist. They can also give in-house training to teachers on issues such as behaviour and stress management.

Learning difficulties in children | The Brain Tumour Charity

In addition, they can write formal reports and attend case conferences to help put in place more formal support strategies. This study provides evidence of potential value in assessing a learner characteristic, behavioral attention, as a means of interpreting at-risk students' responses to intervention. The benefits of long-term research studies such as the one reported by Miller et al.

The Al Otaiba et al. One of the approaches, referred to as Dynamic, was more responsive to students' individual reading profiles derived from the point of screening onward, whereas the second approach, referred to as Typical, corresponds to standard models of response to intervention.

Students in the Dynamic condition demonstrated higher word reading scores at the end of 2rd grade than students in the Typical RTI group.

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  • Learning Disabilities Research Studies: Findings from NICHD funded Projects

These initial findings may provide important guidance to educators. Students who received interventions that were matched to their individual needs yielded better overall outcomes than those in more traditional, static approaches to intervention.

This suggests that moving students to more intensive interventions earlier rather than waiting for them to demonstrate low response to less intensive interventions may be beneficial. The third study in this special issue is reported by Denton and colleagues and addresses two theoretically different approaches to providing interventions to 2nd graders with significant reading difficulties. One approach is Guided Reading in which the emphasis is on text reading deemphasizing explicit instruction and reading skills.

The second approach is described as explicit intervention and addresses more specific instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, and word reading as well as text reading. Their findings suggest that more explicit instruction is likely to accelerate student progress in phonemic decoding, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension than guided reading.

All students, regardless of condition, remained behind in word reading fluency at the end of the school year suggesting that these students require either a significantly more intensive intervention or interventions that are multi-year. In the first commentary, Fletcher and Wagner this issue raise two key issues to inform one's determination of the impact of the studies in this issue and in the literature writ large: Specifically, are effects of intervention cumulative if not, how do you make them cumulative?

In part through analogy, the authors highlight the potential of small effects being meaningful if they accumulate.

brain research and its relationship to learning disabilities

Fletcher and Wagner also discuss conditions that are likely necessary to evaluate whether intervention effects are potentially cumulative or could be. They emphasize the importance of rigorous designs that provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects, longitudinal designs for intervention to ascertain longer-term impact of intervention, and the inclusion of variables that align with the underlying causal model assumed by the intervention along with appropriate covariates in light of the intervention targets.

This commentary further points out the value of context both in interpreting findings today as well as in considering the types of dosage and durations of intervention that may be necessary for struggling learners moving forward. Fletcher and Wagner's broader theme of the interpretation of smaller effect size and implications for intervention is also carried through in the second commentary.

Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us? | LD Topics | LD OnLine

In the second commentary, Snowling and Hulme this issue continue the theme of contextualizing why the field may be obtaining small or modest effect sizes and importantly provide suggestions for approaches to strengthen intervention frameworks to increase effect sizes and the benefit of learners.

They point out that interventions may lack the intensity necessary for larger effects and also allude to potentially thinking of years of intervention, particularly for the most struggling learners, and that increasing the literacy experience outside of school e. Additionally, they encourage more attention to enhancing motivation and engagement in the reading process for learners and point out environmental and cultural factors that could inform underlying theory driving intervention development; models are often underspecified regarding these factors and other within-child factors e.

Finally, they point out the significant need for more attention to the potential mismatch of language between child and instructor e. Critically, they more broadly highlight need for the development of strong oral language skills to support literacy development. These commentaries, taken together, highlight the need to contextualize our effects in light of their potential cumulative impact as well as their expected impact and emphasize the need to redouble our efforts to strengthen our interventions through an enhanced focus on learner characteristics, environmental conditions, strengthening oral language, etc.

These characteristics and others will need to be formally incorporating these into theoretical and conceptual accounts of reading development and be combined with extended dosage and duration to help drive improved outcomes from the next generation of interventions.

Learning difficulties in children with brain tumours

Implications In closing, this special issue provides a small sample of the many essential learning disability questions being addressed through current LDRC and LD Hub funding. The articles in this special issue reflect the promise in the continuing efforts of a large cadre of dedicated researchers for not only identifying the mechanisms underlying learning differences, but finding the pathways to more individualized and effective interventions for the children struggling with learning disabilities.

The opinions and assertions presented in this article are those of the authors and do not purport to represent those of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the U. National Institutes of Health, and the U. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health, U.

brain research and its relationship to learning disabilities

Tutor-assisted intensive learning strategies in kindergarten: How much is enough? Agreement among response to intervention criteria for identifying responder status. Learning and individual Differences. Testing for neuropsychological endophenotypes in siblings discordant for ADHD. Promoting the development of executive functions through early education and prevention programs.

Executive function in preschool age children: Integrating measurement, neurodevelopment and translational research. American Psychological Association; in press. Modeling the etiology of individual differences in early reading development: Evidence for strong genetic influences.

Scientific Studies of Reading. Predicting word reading and comprehension with executive function and speed measures across development: A latent variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Response to intervention for reading difficutlies in the primary grades: Some answers and lingering questions.

brain research and its relationship to learning disabilities

Journal of Learning Disabilities. Journal on Research on Educational Effectiveness. An evaluation of intensive intervention for students with persistent reading difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities Reading comprehension in adolescents with ld: What we know, what we need to learn. Genetic and environmental influences on orthographic and phonological skills in children with reading disabilities.

A largely environmental risk factor with environmentally-mediated effects on reading performance in the primary school years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia. Screening for at-risk readers in a response to intervention framework. Keller T, Just MA. Gray matter volume changes following reading intervention in dyslexic children.