Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis ( Read ) | Biology | CK Foundation
The overall reaction for cellular respiration: (does this reaction look familiar? Overall Whereas only photosynthetic cells can make sugar using photosynthesis, ALL cells need to be able to break down sugars they take in from their . What's the connection? Be able to write the overall equation for Cellular respiration. Animals and plants live in mutually beneficial relationships. We will What Are the Reactants in the Equation for Cellular Respiration? David has taught Honors Physics, AP Physics, IB Physics and general science courses. Photosynthesis: energy + carbon dioxide + water = glucose and oxygen. Cellular respiration is the reverse of the photosynthesis formula.
The acetate enters a reaction system known as the Krebs Cycle. This is opposite of one aspect of photosynthesis, the binding of carbons from CO2 together to make sugar. In addition to CO2, the Krebs Cycle and glycolysis use energy from the chemical bonds of substrates such as glucose to form high-energy compounds such as ATP and GTP, which are used by cell systems.
Also produced are high-energy, reduced compounds: These compounds are the means by which electrons, which hold the energy derived initially from glucose or another food compound, are transferred to the next process, called the electron transport chain.
Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation In the electron transport chain, which in animal cells is located mostly on the inner membranes of mitochondria, reduced products such as NADH and FADH2 are used to create a proton gradient -- an imbalance in the concentration of unpaired hydrogen atoms on one side of the membrane vs.
The proton gradient, in turn, drives the production of more ATP, in a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Overall Effects Overall, photosynthesis involves the energizing of electrons by light energy to reduce add electrons to CO2 to build a larger compound glucoseproducing oxygen as a byproduct. Cellular respiration, on the other hand, involves taking electrons away from a substrate glucose, for instancewhich is to say oxidation, and in the process the substrate is degraded so that its carbon atoms are released as CO2, while oxygen is consumed.
Once again, we need to breathe oxygen in order for us to break down glucose, in order to respire, in order to perform cellar respiration. So these two things are key for life, especially for life that breathes oxygen. So this process, other than the fact that it's interesting, that there are organisms around us, mostly plants, that are able to harness actual sunlight.
What is the formula for cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
You have these fusion reactions in the sun 93 million miles away, and it's releasing these photons, and some small subset of those photons reach the surface of Earth. They make their way through clouds and whatever else.
And then these plants and bacteria and algae are able to harness that somehow and turn them into sugars that we can then eat or maybe the cow eats them and we eat the cow if we're not vegetarians, and we can then use that for energy. Not that the cow is all carbohydrates, but this is essentially what is used as the fuel or the energy for all of the other important compounds that we eat.
This is where we get all of our fuel. So this is fuel for animals. Or you know, if you eat a potato directly, you are directly getting your carbohydrates. But anyway, this is a very simple notion of photosynthesis, but it's not incorrect. I mean, if you had to know one thing about photosynthesis, this would be it.
But let's delve a little bit deeper and try to get into the guts of it and see if we can understand a little bit better how this actually happens. I find it amazing that somehow photons of sunlight are used to create these sugar molecules or these carbohydrates. So let's delve a little bit deeper. So we can write the general equation for photosynthesis.
Well, I've almost written it here. But I'll write it a little bit more scientifically specific. You start off with some carbon dioxide. You add to that some water, and you add to that-- instead of sunlight, I'm going to say photons because these are what really do excite the electrons in the chlorophyll that go down, and you'll see this process probably in this video, and we'll go in more detail in the next few videos.
But that excited electron goes to a high energy state, and as it goes to a lower energy state, we're able to harness that energy to produce ATPs, and you'll see NADPHs, and those are used to produce carbohydrates.
But we'll see that in a little bit.
How is Photosynthesis Related to Cellular Respiration
But the overview of photosynthesis, you start off with these constituents, And then you end up with a carbohydrate. And a carbohydrate could be glucose, doesn't have to be glucose. So the general way we can write a carbohydrates is CH2O. And we'll put an n over here, that we could have n multiples of these, and normally, n will be at least three.
In the case of glucose, n is 6. You have 6 carbons, 12 hydrogens and 6 oxygens. So this is a general term for carbohydrates, but you could have many multiples of that. You could have these long-chained carbohydrates, so you end up with a carbohydrate and then you end up with some oxygen. So this right here isn't so different than what I wrote up here in my first overview of how we always imagined photosynthesis in our heads.
In order to make this equation balance-- let's see, I have n carbons so I need n carbons there. Let's see, I have two n hydrogens here. Two hydrogens and I have n there, so I need two n hydrogens here. So I'll put an n out there. And lets see how many oxygens. I have two n oxygens, plus another n, so I have three n oxygens. So let's see, I have one n, and you put an n here, and then I have two n, and I think this equation balances out.
So this is a 30,foot view of what's going on in photosynthesis. But when you dig a little deeper, you'll see that this doesn't happen directly, that this happens through a bunch of steps that eventually gets us to the carbohydrate.
So in general, we can break down photosynthesis. I'll rewrite the word. We can break down photosynthesis-- and we'll delve deeper into future videos, but I want to get you the overview first-- into two stages.
We can call one the light reactions. How are Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Related? In the information of each of these two processes, you must have noticed that the products of one process are reactants of another - and vice versa.
How Are Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis Almost Opposite Processes? | Sciencing
Glucose and oxygen though a bi-product - which happen to be the products of photosynthesis, are required to facilitate cellular respiration, while carbon dioxide - which is a bi-product of cellular respiration, is required to facilitate the process of photosynthesis.
This very fact forms the basis of the relationship between cellular respiration and photosynthesis. In other words, the plants and other lifeforms which resort to photosynthesis are dependent on organisms which resort to cellular respiration for carbon dioxide, and all these organisms are - in turn, dependent on the glucose that they derive from plants for their energy requirements.
The fact that both resort to the 'electron transport chain' when it comes to the movement of electrons is perhaps one of the most prominent similarities between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. The photosynthesis-cellular respiration relationship also explains why the two are necessary for the presence of life on the planet.