Albania–United Kingdom relations - Wikipedia
Bilateral relations Relations between India and France were which demonstrates the ties of friendship and trust between the two countries. Travel to Albania and see it for yourself - before it changes. You need to learn the love-hate relationship with rakia. Besa, which is loosely translated as “faith” or “trust”, is extremely important to Albanians. Besides Afghanistan and maybe some places in India, Naples city in Italy is insane but of course beautiful. Albania Employment and HR Kalo & Associates 2 Aug at the relevant Labour Office the moment such employment relationship begins.
As regards China, India's knowledge about the neighbouring country and one of the great powers of the current world order is appallingly low, as shown by the small number of scholars and experts on China. Kondapalli estimates that the number of Chinese experts in India does not surpass the number of Most of them have their academic background from other fields, such as American or Russian Studies, and shifted their expertise to China later on, after China moved more into the global spotlight.
For a country like India which has unresolved border issues with China and went to war because of this inthe lack of capacity to deal with China is astonishing. It remains difficult to understand why a hostile conflict in the past and greater business interests nowadays have not more increased the demand for people who can understand the other side.
In the governments of both countries signed a Cultural Exchange Program. As part of this agreement every year 28 Indian students were invited to China and 28 Chinese students were send to India. Students could be from any subject and could attend any university. Kondapalli went to China to learn Chinese in What happens when you learn a language and start to understand the other side is best described in Prof.
And it was amazing. But after the to language training you are kind of charged up, you can jump around and you can talk to people. Kondapallis time as a researcher in Yan'an shows: I generally had my food in a restaurant outside the city. One day the hotel owner asked me where I was from. As I answered that I was from India, he told me that he participated in the war.
So, he showed me some guns he owned from that time. That was my first incident where I met somebody from China with a connection to the war. But, he did not do that to offend me, he just wanted to show that he had some link to India. After we have talked, he cooked dog meat for me, as a special treat. That was the first time I ever ate dog, and probably the last time laughing.
She might represent a changing attitude among the public and scholars towards China — an attitude more open minded and less affected by the Indian experience of defeat in the war. The post liberalization generation of Indians is driven more by practical economic interests and, for those who can afford it economically, by a growing curiosity for deepening knowledge about other cultures and countries.
China is emerging as an affordable and popular place for aspiring India doctors. Since 60 to Indian students are placed in Chinese medical colleges each year in order to pursue their MBBS, and the numbers will grow further Bhattacharyya The delegation consisted of women leaders like Jyotsna Chatterji, environmentalist like Avanti Metha, journalists and political leaders.
Ms Bhavna Singh and the Indian delegation, as representatives of education, politics and NGOs from a democratic country with civic liberties, realized that there is much to learn from the Chinese government-organized NGOs.
First of all, in her view, the manner of operation is superior compared to India. The Chinese get a lot of funding from governmental and non- governmental sources. In that sense they have a lot of capacity. But it is not only the money. At the implementation level, even though India also has a quite a lot of capacity, India's organizations perform very weakly compared to China.
That might not only be because of the bureaucratic hurdles faced by Indian NGOs. Indian NGOs are most of the times totally independent from government and business bodies. If an organization wants to implement an agenda it has to follow a sometimes frustrating process of consensus building with different political, business and social interest groups.
In China, the organisational and management structure is different. In China, consensus does not emerge as a process of conflict resolution from the bottom, but instead is reached by following the guidelines of the party or government policies. That's why in China, the agenda of NGOs is most of the times already conform with government policies, so that the process of implementation doesn't meet many obstacles.
They have already put forward a request to government officials to start such cooperation. But there is a structural problem the Chinese have to face if they want to make such initiatives work: So they have to go to every NGO individually and ask for some kind of cooperation. In that sense it will become a little more difficult for them, because their way of conduct is more organized, more streamlined, more disciplined, and in that sense not so complicated as in India.
The process to look for cooperation with Indian NGOs has just started.
The Chinese side plans to send a delegation every year to filter out individuals who might help them to start interacting with Indian NGOs. Avanti Metha for instance, an environmentalist who works alternatively in Mumbai and Delhi and was part of the Indian delegation in China, is involved in a lot of environment based issues and various agencies.
The Chinese expect her to assist them to create networks with Indian environmental organizations and also to support them to promote their agenda to Indian government bodies and NGOs. But the motivation for partnering with Indian NGOs is much bigger on the Chinese than on the Indian side, a result of the general strains in the bilateral relationship which also affects civil society actors on both sides. Ms Bhavna Singh assumes that because of the lack of mutual trust in the political sphere the two neighbouring countries also do not go comfortably with each other in other fields.
The language problem is certainly one factor because a lot of nuances are lost in translation.The Struggle of Being Gay in Albania
That makes working together difficult because very often both sides end up not to include the things they originally wanted to include in their agenda.
On the official level it is also difficult to get clearances from both sides. But even if the Chinese want to be the first to fund projects in India, they will be met with a lot of distrust.
People would ask why a particular Chinese organization wants to invest or fund somebody in India. There is a qualitative difference for somebody who wants to pursue Indian Studies in China: The Chinese on the other hand have some experts in the Sanskrit language, and even a few experts in South Indian languages.
Their interest has most of the times to do with Buddhist scriptures which had an impact on the traditional Chinese society. So, almost all classical Buddhist scripture are already translated into modern Chinese. India needs a new approach towards China The call for a new strategy or approach towards China is not a new one Banerjee But India needs to react now to foster peaceful relations on an equal basis with China.
The educational and the economic sector are paving the way for better relations. With the growing capacity in university exchange programs and business relations also personal relationships can grow. On a personal, individual level trust between the two countries is growing. India's main problem in improving relations to China is partly due to the lack of political will from the government to change the status quo with Chine, due to vested interests from different political groups, industry and probably military.
But it is partially also due to the current state of political and civic culture in India. Most importantly, the media in India show a tendency to exaggerate and monger for sensations. The way popular Indian TV News Channels present news, as well as the discussion culture in talk shows, do not help to create a culture of common courtesy and trust or simply inform the public.
In the case of China, media show a bias against China most of the time, looking at the neighbouring country primarily as a threat to India's sovereignty.
This argumentation is certainly not completely wrong; India has to keep a watchful eye on China because the border conflict is still pending and Chinese military power and influence in India's geo-strategic territory is increasing. China's relationship with Pakistan is definitely an effort to counter India's growing geo-political ambitions. But a comparison between Indian relationships to Pakistan and those to China shows that the chances for positive change are much higher with China.
Since the war and the border clashes in Sikkim not a single shot was fired between India and China. At the Indo-Pakistan border there is frequent exchange of artillery fire, terrorists are sneaking in, and then there is border trespassing by military jets and personnel. Additionally the element of ideology is much stronger in relation with Pakistan than with China.
Such an element is totally missing in the relations with China. China is a far more rational competitor and therefore much easier to deal with than Pakistan. Only India sometime seems to act irrational when it comes to China. India has to cast off its inferiority complex when it has to face China. The country seems to have forgotten its old strengths when it comes to its authoritarian neighbour. In direct comparison, the South Asian country lags far behind the PRC in almost all socio-economic index figures.
France and India
Western and even Indian experts are quick to blame the slow democratic process for India's situation. In thes and in the first decade of the second millennium, when India's economic growth was on the fast track, experts did not spare with praises on India's democratic system and rule of law.
But in the economic slowdown that started inexperts again point their fingers at India's heterogeneous, democratic society. A German observer captures the ambivalence: But it seems though that the democratic process is a hindrance for India's development. However, one has to keep in mind that India's political system is characterized by an enormous complexity due to the diversity of regions, people and opportunities.
In this case blockades, idleness and corruption are somehow inevitable. Then there are the enormous social challenges, which very difficult to handle even with the best intentions and the most effective instruments. One may argue that this kind of assessment is again an oversimplification of the problem: How can a system that for almost two decades seemed to be a engine of growth, now be a hindrance for development?
Many experts forget to evaluate the historic genesis of a system and the probable future consequences for it. The Chinese model of development evolved after decades of social and economic turmoil.
India's development was quite stable without major political system changes. The transitions to these different phases in modern PRC history were accompanied by major social and political unrest. India's federal democratic system, with all its flaws, proved to be a better management tool to deal with social movements and turbulences until now.
Independent India's economic performance till the s, although with a low growth rate, was constant and predictable, while Chinese political and economic situation was unstable, the social situation even at times explosive. Many would argue that India's current weak economic performance is not a systemic issue, but constitutes a leadership and governance leadership problem.
In a TV news panel about India's 65th Independence Day anniversary, a panellist said that India lacks the leaders it had during the freedom struggle and shortly after independence. This referred not only to the realm of politics, but also to culture and sports were India was leading Asian nations in the s and s. After this era a new breed of leaders emerged who had not been directly involved any more in the freedom struggle and had different values.
I do not say that all these new values were bad but some of them definitely have an effect on the current state of politics in India. If India can rediscover its old strength and identity, it can face China with self-confidence again — not aggressively, but on par with the other Asian giant.
The author wishes to thank Prof. India-China relations and the media. India begins use of Chabahar port in Iran despite international pressure. Lured by cheaper cost, many Indians opt for Chinese medical colleges. China's stapled visa unstaples its stand on Arunachal. India to open super highway to Burma and Thailand. Managing India — China Relations.
China's Strategy for the Indian Ocean. Simpson, Peter and Dean Nelson. China considers Seychelles military base plan. Relevant Labour Office corresponding to the business location of the employer and where the employee will perform his work, if the foreigner is residing in the Republic of Albania; General Directorate of the Employment National Service, if the employer which intends to employ the employee, carries out its business in more than one region, and if the foreigner is residing in the Republic of Albania; The corresponding Albanian Diplomatic mission of the Republic of Albania, in the Country of Origin, if the foreigner is residing in the Country of Origin.
Such a residence permit is issued by the Regional Directorate of Border and Migration, if the applicant fulfils the conditions provided for in the legislation. We note that the procedure is administrative and, provided that the documentary requirements are fulfilled, there is in general no problem in acquiring the necessary residence and work permit. In this event, the first contract between the employer and the employee remains in force.
When an employer seconds his employee to another employer, then the first employer is obliged to grant the employee at least the same working conditions as those which the second employer has granted to the employee s of his enterprise carrying out the same work. The employer to whom the employee is seconded has the same obligations to the employee with regard to health protection, insurance and hygiene as to his other employees. In the event that the employer fails to fulfil his obligations to the seconded employee, then the second employer, through solidarity with the first employer, will be held liable for the fulfilment of the obligations to the employee.
Types of engagement 3. In the even that the employment contract is agreed orally, the employer is obliged to produce a written contract within 30 thirty days from the date of the oral agreement, bearing the signature of the employer and that of the employee and containing all mandatory legal elements 1.
According to Article 23 3 of the Labour Code, the following mandatory elements must be included in all written employment contracts: An employment contract may last for an indefinite or a fixed period of time, although the employer must provide justification if the term is fixed i. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the first 3 three months of the employment will be deemed to represent a probationary period, regardless of whether the contract is for a fixed or indefinite term.
During the probationary period either party may terminate relations with five days' notice. Furthermore, a service agreement is another type of engagement frequently used in practice in Albania. However, this type of agreement can only be entered into with physical person s registered for commercial purposes.
The service agreement is a sui generis agreement, and such agreement is regulated by the Albanian Civil Code and not by the Labour Code. However, in the event that the managing director is a registered person for commercial purposes, the applicable tax regime shall be different and fall outside the scope of the Labour Law.
In all other cases the compensation of the managing director shall be considered as a salary, and the rules defined in section 5 below shall apply upon this compensation. Salary and other payments and benefits 4. The employer shall deduct from the employee's salary the corresponding income tax and the social and health insurance contributions, as per the specifications of the primary and secondary legislation and of the collective or individual employment contracts.
Salaries must be paid in ALL, unless otherwise defined by the agreement between the parties. Insofar as these payments are not considered salary, neither the employer nor the employee is obliged to pay mandatory social and health insurance contributions on the above payments. In addition, please note that the abovementioned payments are not considered taxable personal income for the employee.
However, please be informed that according to the law, contributions in kind which have a permanent nature are considered as part of the salary and, thus, personal income tax should be paid on the value of such permanent contributions in kind. As for the employees' stock option plans, it should be noted that this area is not sufficiently regulated in Albania. Salary tax and mandatory social Contributions 5. The relevant legislation provides for the payment of social contribution and health insurance as a mandatory obligation, and which is an obligation to be executed by both the employer and the employee.
The obligations for contributions of social security and health insurance in Albania are as follows: Contributions should be calculated using the reference salary as defined by the Decision of Council of Ministers No. In addition, please note that the minimum monthly salary for the purposes of calculating social security and health insurance contributions is 16, For the purpose of payment of social security contributions, the employer should withhold the employees' part of contributions from the employee's salary.
According to Article 83 of the Labour Code, reasonable working hours shall not exceed 40 forty hours per week and that such weekly working hours must be set out either in a collective agreement or in individual employment contracts.
The normal daily working hours are 8 eight hours.
Overtime and extra working hours are also regulated by the Labour Code Article 91which provides that the employer shall compensate the employee for any overtime with 25 percent of normal payment if time-off in lieu is not given; or, if agreed, to compensate with time-off in lieu plus 25 percent of the hours of the normal working day, unless otherwise provided for in the collective contract.
Extra work performed at weekends or on public holidays will give rise to higher extra payments of 50 percent of the normal payment, unless otherwise defined by the collective contract. The Labour Code also regulates night work, defined as work carried out between 10 p. The duration of night work and of the work carried out one day before or after must be no longer than eight hours without interruption; it must also be preceded or followed by an immediate break of one day.
Working during the evening entitles the employee to extra payment, so for every hour worked between 7 p. Annual vacation, paid leave, sick leave, unpaid leave and employment standstill 7. The Labour Code provides for minimum paid annual leave of no less than four calendar weeks in one year pro-rata for those who have worked less than one year.
For the purpose of calculating annual leave, sick leave shall be considered working time. The period during which an employee can take annual leave shall be determined by the employer taking into consideration the employee's preferences. The employee is obliged to give the employer at least 30 days' prior notice of the dates for his annual leave. Moreover, in cases where the employee receives a salary which includes contribution in kind e. A decision of the Council of Ministers sets out the method of calculation for such additional contributions.
Under the provisions of the Labour Code "Annual leave must be given during the working year or within the first three months of the consecutive year, but in no case may it be less than one calendar week without interruptions.
The right to annual leave which has accrued but has not been awarded taken within three years of the date when this right might be enjoyed, is subject to statute of limitations". Further to the above-stated provisions, such rights of the employee must be exhausted no later than the month of March in the subsequent year.
Thus, the employer should designate and award to the employee the right to take his annual leave within the month of March in the subsequent year. This paragraph is designated to protect the interests of those employees who, for any reason their own or that of their employeris unable to take the annual vacations. Nevertheless, in practice this last paragraph has not been applicable as most employees choose to exhaust their annual vacations within the respective year.
Furthermore, in practice, if the employees have not taken the annual leave by the month of March in the subsequent year, they receive compensation equal to the salary of the vacations which have not been taken.
The law on social security provides for maternity leave and pursuant to that law a pregnant woman is entitled to paid maternity leave of calendar days, including a minimum of 35 days prior to childbirth and 42 days after childbirth. In the event of the birth of more than one child, the duration of this period is extended to days.
Maternity leave is paid by the SIIand not by the employer. Furthermore, at the request of the employer the employee is obliged to undergo examination by another doctor assigned by the employer; this doctor will declare only the disability of the employee to work, while maintaining medical confidence. However, in practice unpaid leave, its duration, etc.
It is at the discretion of the employer to accept or refuse the request for unpaid leave. The related regulatory framework is absent from employment law and corporate law.
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Albanian tax legislation also does not contain specific provisions relating to the taxation of granting, vesting or delivery of shares. According to the Albanian Labour Code, the employer must apply for a permit from the Labour Inspectorate prior to commencing operation of the enterprise or a part of it, before creating new workplaces, and prior to any important change in the manner of work, usage of materials, machinery and equipment.
If, within 30 days from the date of the submission of the documents, the Labour inspector has not rejected them in writing or in a motivated way, the employer may commence project s. During the process of employment the employer trains the employees to respect all requirements related to health, safety and hygiene. If the nature of work requires the usage of mechanical and electrical machines and equipment, the employer should only hire qualified persons, or the employer should provide training to the person hired.
Furthermore, in order to prevent accidents and occupational illness, the employer is obliged to provide clear technical safety rules and monitor hygiene in the workplaces.
Furthermore, in accordance with Decision No. Thus, the employer is obliged to apply high standards of safety-atwork measures and health protection measures. According to Decision of Council of Ministers No. Amendment of the employment Agreement According to Article 12 of the Albanian Labour Code, the employment agreement may be amended by mutual agreement between the parties, wherein such mutual agreement is concluded either orally or in written form.
In the event that the amendment of the employment agreement is agreed orally, the employer is obliged to produce a written amendment to the employment agreement within 30 thirty days from the date of the oral agreement and this written agreement must be signed by both parties.
Termination of employment An open-term employment contract is terminated when one party decides to do so and the prior notice period has been observed. The Labour Code provides that an employment contract can be terminated with or without cause and although in normal circumstances a notice period must be provided, there are circumstances where the law justifies immediate termination for reasonable cause. If such termination takes place after the probationary period, the employer must convene a meeting with the employee, to discuss the reasons giving at least 72 hours' prior written notice.
The notice of termination of employment may be given to the employee from 48 hours to one week following the date of meeting. Should the employer fail to follow this procedure, he shall be obliged to pay the employee compensation equal to two months' salary, and other possible compensation.
This procedural requirement does not apply to collective dismissals for which there is a separate special procedure. In the event that the parties have not defined the notice term in the employment contract, reference shall be made to the Labour Code.
According to the Labour Code, the notice period for termination within the 3 three month probationary period is at least five days, which may be changed by the written agreement of both parties. The Labour Code provides for mandatory minimum notice periods to be applied in the case of termination of an indefinite open term contract by either the employer or the employee, as follows: According to the Labour Code termination of the employment contract by employer is considered to be without cause Article of the Labour Code when it is: If an employee is dismissed without any reasonable cause, he has the right to bring a claim against the employer to court within days, beginning from the day on which the notice of termination expires.
In the event that an employer is found to have had an unjustifiable motive discovered after the expiration of this deadline, the employee has the right to start legal actions within 30 days, beginning from the day on which the particular unreasonable cause was discovered. Article of the Labour Code defines specific procedures which need to be followed when an employer plans to execute collective dismissals.
The employer shall inform in writing the employees' trade union which is recognised as the representative of the employees. In the absence of a trade union, the employees shall themselves be informed by way of a notice visibly placed in the workplace.