American History: Split Divides Jackson, Vice President Calhoun (VOA Special English )
you describe the relationship between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun, and find homework help for other History, Jackson, Andrew, John C. Calhoun. They expected President Jackson to dismiss all the government workers who did not support him in the election. Jackson supporters wanted. The Nullification Crisis was a United States sectional political crisis in –33, during the This compromise tariff received the support of most northerners and half of the . As expected, Jackson and his running mate John Calhoun carried the entire . Calhoun was not alone in finding a connection between the abolition.
In Marchhe signed a new tariff bill that lowered tariffs even further, thereby appeasing the South. But he also signed the Force Bill, which authorized the compulsory collection of import duties from the South—by force of arms if necessary. It was a signal to Southerners that threats of nullification and secession would not be tolerated. Though this effectively brought the constitutional crisis to an end, it did not forestall the eventual outbreak of civil war.
For some Southern radicals, the tariff issue had been a mere pretext for the threat of secession. These radicals continued to view the federal government with intense suspicion and threatened to secede every time a federal policy or law was perceived as antagonistic to the interests of the slaveholding South.
What do you think? Why was the tariff of so unpopular in the South? What do you think about John C. Calhoun and his theory of nullification?
Did he make any good points? Can you imagine a compromise solution that would have satisfied both the North and the South, thereby forestalling the outbreak of civil war? Article written by Dr. Notes For more on the tariff issue, see Robert B. For more, see Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History New York: Oxford University Press, University of North Carolina Press, James Oakes, et al, Of the People: To New York: Oxford University Press, For more, see William W.
Freehling, Prelude to Civil War: The age of Jackson. Though Madison agreed entirely with the specific condemnation of the Alien and Sedition Acts, with the concept of the limited delegated power of the general government, and even with the proposition that laws contrary to the Constitution were illegal, he drew back from the declaration that each state legislature had the power to act within its borders against the authority of the general government to oppose laws the legislature deemed unconstitutional.
Several states followed Maryland's House of Delegates in rejecting the idea that any state could, by legislative action, even claim that a federal law was unconstitutional, and suggested that any effort to do so was treasonous.
A few northern states, including Massachusetts, denied the powers claimed by Kentucky and Virginia and insisted that the Sedition law was perfectly constitutional. Ten state legislatures with heavy Federalist majorities from around the country censured Kentucky and Virginia for usurping powers that supposedly belonged to the federal judiciary.
Northern Republicans supported the resolutions' objections to the alien and sedition acts, but opposed the idea of state review of federal laws. Southern Republicans outside Virginia and Kentucky were eloquently silent about the matter, and no southern legislature heeded the call to battle. But, the four presidential terms spanning the period from to "did little to advance the cause of states' rights and much to weaken it.
Jefferson expanded federal powers with the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory and his use of a national embargo designed to prevent involvement in a European war. Madison in used national troops to enforce a Supreme Court decision in Pennsylvania, appointed an "extreme nationalist" in Joseph Story to the Supreme Court, signed the bill creating the Second Bank of the United Statesand called for a constitutional amendment to promote internal improvements.
Delegates to a convention in Hartford, Connecticut met in December to consider a New England response to Madison's war policy. The debate allowed many radicals to argue the cause of states' rights and state sovereignty. In the end, moderate voices dominated and the final product was not secession or nullification, but a series of proposed constitutional amendments. Madison's speech [his annual message to Congress] affirmed that the war had reinforced the evolution of mainstream Republicanism, moving it further away from its original and localist assumptions.
The war's immense strain on the treasury led to new calls from nationalist Republicans for a national bank. The difficulties in moving and supplying troops exposed the wretchedness of the country's transportation links, and the need for extensive new roads and canals.
A boom in American manufacturing during the prolonged cessation of trade with Britain created an entirely new class of enterprisers, most of them tied politically to the Republicans, who might not survive without tariff protection.
More broadly, the war reinforced feelings of national identity and connection. However in the nation suffered its first financial panic and the s turned out to be a decade of political turmoil that again led to fierce debates over competing views of the exact nature of American federalism.
The "extreme democratic and agrarian rhetoric" that had been so effective in led to renewed attacks on the "numerous market-oriented enterprises, particularly banks, corporations, creditors, and absentee landholders".
Calhoun and fellow South Carolinian William Lowndes. The bill barely passed the federal House of Representatives by a vote of to The Middle states and Northwest supported the bill, the South and Southwest opposed it, and New England split its vote with a majority opposing it. Madison denied both the appeal to nullification and the unconstitutionality; he had always held that the power to regulate commerce included protection.
Jefferson had, at the end of his life, written against protective tariffs. Van Buren calculated that the South would vote for Jackson regardless of the issues so he ignored their interests in drafting the bill.
New England, he thought, was just as likely to support the incumbent John Quincy Adamsso the bill levied heavy taxes on raw materials consumed by New England such as hemp, flax, molasses, iron and sail duck. Over opposition from the South and some from New England, the tariff was passed with the full support of many Jackson supporters in Congress and signed by President Adams in early However many Southerners became dissatisfied as Jackson, in his first two annual messages to Congress, failed to launch a strong attack on the tariff.
The most doctrinaire ideologues of the Old Republican group [supporters of the Jefferson and Madison position in the late s] first found Jackson wanting. These purists identified the tariff ofthe hated Tariff of Abominations, as the most heinous manifestation of the nationalist policy they abhorred.
Andrew Jackson Proclaims Federal Power over States' Rights
That protective tariff violated their constitutional theory, for, as they interpreted the document, it gave no permission for a protective tariff. Moreover, they saw protection as benefiting the North and hurting the South. Calhoun South Carolina had been adversely affected by the national economic decline of the s. During this decade, the population decreased by 56, whites and 30, slaves, out of a total free and slave population ofThe whites left for better places; they took slaves with them or sold them to traders moving slaves to the Deep South for sale.
Ellis describes the situation: Throughout the colonial and early national periods, South Carolina had sustained substantial economic growth and prosperity. This had created an extremely wealthy and extravagant low country aristocracy whose fortunes were based first on the cultivation of rice and indigo, and then on cotton.
Then the state was devastated by the Panic of The depression that followed was more severe than in almost any other state of the Union. Moreover, competition from the newer cotton producing areas along the Gulf Coastblessed with fertile lands that produced a higher crop-yield per acre, made recovery painfully slow. To make matters worse, in large areas of South Carolina slaves vastly outnumbered whites, and there existed both considerable fear of slave rebellion and a growing sensitivity to even the smallest criticism of "the peculiar institution.
Soil erosion and competition from the New Southwest were also very significant reasons for the state's declining fortunes. Nationalists such as Calhoun were forced by the increasing power of such leaders to retreat from their previous positions and adopt, in the words of Ellis, "an even more extreme version of the states' rights doctrine" in order to maintain political significance within South Carolina. The Nullification Movement that split the Nation started here in Governor Robert Hayne, General James Hamilton and other leaders drafted the Nullification Papers in the 2nd floor drawing room South Carolina's first effort at nullification occurred in Its planters believed that free black sailors had assisted Denmark Vesey in his planned slave rebellion.
South Carolina passed a Negro Seamen Actwhich required that all black foreign seamen be imprisoned while their ships were docked in Charleston. The UK strongly objected, especially as it was recruiting more Africans as sailors. What was worse, if the captains did not pay the fees to cover the cost of jailing, South Carolina would sell the sailors into slavery.
Other southern states also passed laws against free black sailors. The South Carolina Senate announced that the judge's ruling was invalid and that the Act would be enforced. The federal government did not attempt to carry out Johnson's decision. The state's leaders were not united and the sides were roughly equal. The western part of the state and a faction in Charleston, led by Joel Poinsettwould remain loyal to the Union.
Split Divides Jackson, Vice President Calhoun
Only in small part was the conflict between "a National North against a States'-right South". They were rebuffed in their efforts to coordinate a united Southern response and focused on how their state representatives would react. While many agreed with George McDuffie that tariff policy could lead to secession at some future date, they all agreed that as much as possible, the issue should be kept out of the upcoming presidential election.
Calhoun, while not at this meeting, served as a moderating influence.The Tariff Crisis of 1832: Jackson vs. Calhoun
He felt that the first step in reducing the tariff was to defeat Adams and his supporters in the upcoming election. Prestonon behalf of the South Carolina legislature, asked Calhoun to prepare a report on the tariff situation. Calhoun readily accepted this challenge and in a few weeks time had a 35,word draft of what would become his " Exposition and Protest ".
He argued that the tariff of was unconstitutional because it favored manufacturing over commerce and agriculture. He thought that the tariff power could only be used to generate revenue, not to provide protection from foreign competition for American industries. He believed that the people of a state or several states, acting in a democratically elected convention, had the retained power to veto any act of the federal government which violated the Constitution.
This veto, the core of the doctrine of nullification, was explained by Calhoun in the Exposition: If it be conceded, as it must be by every one who is the least conversant with our institutions, that the sovereign powers delegated are divided between the General and State Governments, and that the latter hold their portion by the same tenure as the former, it would seem impossible to deny to the States the right of deciding on the infractions of their powers, and the proper remedy to be applied for their correction.
The right of judging, in such cases, is an essential attribute of sovereignty, of which the States cannot be divested without losing their sovereignty itself, and being reduced to a subordinate corporate condition. In fact, to divide power, and to give to one of the parties the exclusive right of judging of the portion allotted to each, is, in reality, not to divide it at all; and to reserve such exclusive right to the General Government it matters not by what department to be exercisedis to convert it, in fact, into a great consolidated government, with unlimited powers, and to divest the States, in reality, of all their rights, It is impossible to understand the force of terms, and to deny so plain a conclusion.
All through that hot and humid summer, emotions among the vociferous planter population had been worked up to a near-frenzy of excitement. The whole tenor of the argument built up in the "Exposition" was aimed to present the case in a cool, considered manner that would dampen any drastic moves yet would set in motion the machinery for repeal of the tariff act.
It would also warn other sections of the Union against any future legislation that an increasingly self-conscious South might consider punitive, especially on the subject of slavery.
The Nullification crisis (article) | Khan Academy
Calhoun, who still had designs on succeeding Jackson as president, was not identified as the author but word on this soon leaked out. The legislature took no action on the report at that time. As a state representative, Rhett called for the governor to convene a special session of the legislature. An outstanding orator, Rhett appealed to his constituents to resist the majority in Congress.
Rhett addressed the danger of doing nothing: But if you are doubtful of yourselves — if you are not prepared to follow up your principles wherever they may lead, to their very last consequence — if you love life better than honor, -- prefer ease to perilous liberty and glory; awake not! Live in smiling peace with your insatiable Oppressors, and die with the noble consolation that your submissive patience will survive triumphant your beggary and despair.
Jefferson's "rightful remedy" of nullification.
John C. Calhoun
Hamilton sent a copy of the speech directly to President-elect Jackson. But, despite a statewide campaign by Hamilton and McDuffie, a proposal to call a nullification convention in was defeated by the South Carolina legislature meeting at the end of State leaders such as Calhoun, Hayne, Smith, and William Drayton were all able to remain publicly non-committal or opposed to nullification for the next couple of years.
After Congress tabled the measure, the debate in South Carolina resumed between those who wanted state investment and those who wanted to work to get Congress' support. The debate demonstrated that a significant minority of the state did have an interest in Clay's American System. The effect of the Webster—Hayne debate was to energize the radicals, and some moderates started to move in their direction.
On the defensive, radicals underplayed the intent of the convention as pro-nullification. When voters were presented with races where an unpledged convention was the issue, the radicals generally won. When conservatives effectively characterized the race as being about nullification, the radicals lost.
The October election was narrowly carried by the radicals, although the blurring of the issues left them without any specific mandate. Pinckney as speaker of the South Carolina House. State politics became sharply divided along Nullifier and Unionist lines. Still, the margin in the legislature fell short of the two-thirds majority needed for a convention.
Many of the radicals felt that convincing Calhoun of the futility of his plans for the presidency would lead him into their ranks. Calhoun meanwhile had concluded that Martin Van Buren was clearly establishing himself as Jackson's heir apparent. At Hamilton's prompting, George McDuffie made a three-hour speech in Charleston demanding nullification of the tariff at any cost. In the state, the success of McDuffie's speech seemed to open up the possibilities of both military confrontation with the federal government and civil war within the state.
With silence no longer an acceptable alternative, Calhoun looked for the opportunity to take control of the anti-tariff faction in the state; by June he was preparing what would be known as his Fort Hill Address. While the logic of much of the speech was consistent with the states' rights position of most Jacksonians, and even Daniel Webster remarked that it "was the ablest and most plausible, and therefore the most dangerous vindication of that particular form of Revolution", the speech still placed Calhoun clearly in the nullifier camp.
Within South Carolina, his gestures at moderation in the speech were drowned out as planters received word of the Nat Turner insurrection in Virginia. Calhoun was not alone in finding a connection between the abolition movement and the sectional aspects of the tariff issue.
I consider the tariff act as the occasion, rather than the real cause of the present unhappy state of things. The truth can no longer be disguised, that the [[Peculiar institution peculiar domestick [ sic ] institution]] of the Southern States and the consequent direction which that and her soil have given to her industry, has placed them in regard to taxation and appropriations in opposite relation to the majority of the Union, against the danger of which, if there be no protective power in the reserved rights of the states they must in the end be forced to rebel, or, submit to have their paramount interests sacrificed, their domestic institutions subordinated by Colonization and other schemes, and themselves and children reduced to wretchedness.
Unlike state political organizations in the past, which were led by the South Carolina planter aristocracy, this group appealed to all segments of the population, including non-slaveholder farmers, small slaveholders, and the Charleston non-agricultural class.
Governor Hamilton was instrumental in seeing that the association, which was both a political and a social organization, expanded throughout the state. In the winter of and spring ofthe governor held conventions and rallies throughout the state to mobilize the nullification movement. The conservatives were unable to match the radicals in either organization or leadership.
The nullifiers won and on October 20,Governor Hamilton called the legislature into a special session to consider a convention. The legislative vote was in the House and in the Senate  In November the Nullification Convention met. The convention declared that the tariffs of and were unconstitutional and unenforceable within the state of South Carolina after February 1, They said that attempts to use force to collect the taxes would lead to the state's secession.
Robert Haynewho followed Hamilton as governor inestablished a 2,man group of mounted minutemen and 25, infantry who would march to Charleston in the event of a military conflict. To avoid conflicts with Unionists, it allowed importers to pay the tariff if they so desired. Other merchants could pay the tariff by obtaining a paper tariff bond from the customs officer.
They would then refuse to pay the bond when due, and if the customs official seized the goods, the merchant would file for a writ of replevin to recover the goods in state court. Customs officials who refused to return the goods by placing them under the protection of federal troops would be civilly liable for twice the value of the goods.
To insure that state officials and judges supported the law, a "test oath" would be required for all new state officials, binding them to support the ordinance of nullification.
If the sacred soil of Carolina should be polluted by the footsteps of an invader, or be stained with the blood of her citizens, shed in defense, I trust in Almighty God that no son of hers While he may have abandoned some of his earlier beliefs that had allowed him to vote for the Tariff ofhe still felt protectionism was justified for products essential to military preparedness and did not believe that the current tariff should be reduced until the national debt was fully paid off.
He addressed the issue in his inaugural address and his first three messages to Congress, but offered no specific relief.