Personality Traits as Predictor of Emotional Intelligence among the University Teachers as Advisors
Extroversion. Another study was conducted by Petrides et al ().  on the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and. Big Five Personality Dimensions. Emotional Intelligence describes one's ability to manage behavior. This research explored the relationships of emotional intelligence and personality traits with. The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine inter relationship of emotional intelligence and personality trait (Conscientiousness, Openness to.
They may get irritated and frustrated and this in turn negatively affects the mood of the other employees as well. This creates a bi-directional emotional contagion, which if recognized early, can provide an opportunity to improve the workplace environment. Many studies highlight the importance of emotional intelligence competencies in leadership Boyatzis and Van Oosten, ; Harms and Crede, For example, the outstanding leader took more initiatives to come up with solutions; they spent more time in planning about the future of the organization and were more assertive in their mode of communication.
Similarly, Boyatzis et al. Further, emotionally intelligent managers are more satisfied with their work, more committed to their career occupational commitmentand more committed to their organizations organizational commitment Carmelli, Those with higher emotional intelligence are less likely to withdraw from their organization, which is crucial when trying to retain valuable employees.
Overall, therefore, we can conclude that emotional intelligence plays an important role in determining how a leader performs in an organization. However, despite the call to develop more holistic approaches to leadership development Boyatzis et al. Moreover, most current programs primarily focus on enhancing competencies at a behavioral level. This paper adds to this literature by introducing the Dharma Life Program, an app based personality development tool.
A growing body of literature suggests a significant correlation between EI and personality traits such as extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness Ghiabi and Besharat, ; Nawi et al.
These findings indicate that a person who scores high on self-awareness, social awareness, relationship management, and self-management is likely to be outgoing, creative, and open to exploring new ideas. They also find that personality traits could effectively predict variances in EI, out of which conscientiousness appears to have the highest correlation with EI Nawi et al.
A person who scores high on conscientiousness trait can be expected to possess greater self-discipline and greater capacity for emotional self-regulation. The association of extraversion and other positive traits and neuroticism with EI can be justified based on the individuals' tendencies to experience positive and negative emotions, respectively. Those who score high on extraversion will have a greater tendency to experience pleasure.
On the other hand, those high on neuroticism will have a greater tendency to experience negative emotions, along with poor adjustment. Based on the assumption that unbalanced personality traits affect human flourishing, this tool focuses on balancing traits identified as unbalanced in the individual so their emotional and social intelligence can be enhanced.
The paper then presents a study in which 26 leadership development participants underwent the Dharma Life Program intervention. The study finds that Dharma Life Program positively influences the emotional intelligence of participants. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications for future research and practical applications. Emotional intelligence Peter Salovey and John Mayer were early adopters of the term emotional intelligence.
Their model not only understands emotional intelligence as a form of intelligence, i. These steps are represented as four levels: Emotional perception describes a self-awareness of accurately expressing one's emotions.
Emotional understanding applies the assimilation concept to both understand more complex emotions as well as better recognize transitions between emotions. The last level is emotional management, which involves the individual becoming adept at successfully controlling their impulses and managing their emotional reactivity in order to analyze a given situation and behave rationally. In addition to being viewed as an ability, emotional intelligence has also been considered from a trait perspective.
Analyses of trait based emotional intelligence have shown that it has a demonstratively similar factor space with the Big Five dimensions of personality Petrides et al. Further, a recent meta-analysis of data sources examined the relationship between trait and ability emotional intelligence and the general factor of personality GFP van der Linden et al.
It was found that not only does GFP moderately correlate with ability emotional intelligence, it largely overlaps with trait emotional intelligence. One of the most commonly used contemporary models for assessing emotional intelligence comes from the work of Goleman ab who breaks down the construct into an emotional intelligence competency inventory ECI consisting of four clusters and twenty competencies: Empathy, Social Orientation, and Organizational Awareness.
Subsequently, this inventory was expanded this to include social intelligence leading to the emotional and social competency inventory ESCIwhich functions with the same clusters albeit with a reduction to 12 competencies Boyatzis, Empathy and Organizational Awareness.
ESCI incorporates two dimensions of emotional intelligence: Ability emotional intelligence is linked with general intelligence measures, coping skills, and emotional regulation. Trait intelligence, on the other hand, highly correlates with personality traits and is essentially a constellation of emotional perceptions operationalized via questionnaires and ratings scales Petrides et al.
Therefore, ESCI can be considered a measurement of a mixed competency model of emotional intelligence as it is partially associated with both definitions and is an appropriate tool for our purpose. Furthermore, the ESCI has been thoroughly investigated as an effect measurement to operationalize the construct of emotional intelligence.
Research has found the ESCI to be a particularly useful measure for predicting leadership effectiveness through both degree and self-reported assessments. In a multi-rater, cross-sectional study design where an individual's leadership competencies are assessed through self-assessment questionnaire as well as questionnaires offered to co-workers, the ESCI predicted leaders' effectiveness in various contexts such as family businesses Miller,public institutions such as universities Babu,and private businesses Kendall, ESCI has also been reliable in predicting leadership effectiveness in various professions such as knowledge workers Mahon et al.
There is also evidence for cross-cultural validity and utility for this inventory.
Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality
For example, Bajaj and Medury conducted a study in India that predicted a manager's leadership effectiveness with the ESCI ratings of subordinates in addition to being useful in transforming the leadership style of a sample of managers.
Personality traits show relative stability Watson,p. These traits reflect automatic ways in which a person interprets and reacts to their environment. Currently, EI is characterized by some researchers as an ability, involving the cognitive processing of emotional information, which is accordingly most appropriately measured by performance tests [ 9 ]. In short, it can be stated that EI is the ability of a person to detect and to handle emotional cues and information and respond accordingly.
The concept of emotional intelligence has inspired numerous school-based programs of social and emotional learning, as well as management training programs [ 10 ]. Emotional intelligence is expected to be linked to a range of theoretically interesting outcomes [ 9 ].
EI is considered to be a prerequisite for the teachers working as student advisors as they are required not only to deal with the problems of the student but also to effectively tackle the emotions of students who are in problem. Teachers should serve as role models because their effective advisory service helps students to acquire ways of regulating their emotions.
Hence, a strong need is felt for the development of the emotional and social growth in students, right from the elementary level to the highest echelons of learning, that is, universities.
Understanding, managing, and employing emotions are required to build up a strong personality. Personality traits may be, in part, genetically based and fairly stable over time. However, adult personality is not rigidly determined from birth, and there is room for change [ 10 ].
For the skillful management of emotions, it is required to have an understanding of emotions and awareness of the individual differences. These individual differences are observable in the characteristics and behaviors that are possessed by an individual and that can be expressed as personality [ 11 ]. Unlike cognitive ability, EI is most reliably assessed via self-report inventories, rather than objective performance tests.
There existed an interdependent relationship between personality traits and EI. Research indicates that personality traits have an effect on the development of the emotional quotient of an individual, and emotional quotient has an influence on the application and development of the personality of the individual [ 13 ].
Emotional intelligence - Wikipedia
Literature reveals an established evidence for a strong association between EI and various personality traits [ 14 ]. Dawda and Hart [ 15 ] reported a significant relationship between EI and all Big Five personality factors. A study conducted by Avsec et al. Conscientiousness makes the most contribution in EI whereas neuroticism contributes the least. Extraversion, openness, and agreeableness also predict emotional intelligence. For further references, see [ 18 — 21 ] and Zembylas [ 22 ].
Gender differences concerning EI depend on the kind of assessment tool used, self-report or performance measures. The findings of studies that have used self-report measures have been very dissimilar.
Objectives i To study the impact of five personality traits on EI. Hypotheses H1 Extraversion has a significant impact on EI. H2 Agreeableness has a significant impact on EI.
H3 Conscientiousness has a significant impact on EI. H4 Neuroticism does not have a significant impact on EI. H5 Openness to experience has a significant impact on EI.
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H6 Significant gender differences exist between personality traits and EI. The age range of the participants was 21—40 years. The sampling technique applied for drawing out the sample was convenience sampling. Demographic Sheet A demographic sheet measuring biographic data of the participants was used for the present study.
It measured variables like age, gender, and education. Schutte and his associates developed the scale in [ 23 ]. Items of the test relate to the three aspects of emotional intelligence: It has been developed on a 5-point Likert scale format where 1 indicates strongly disagree and 5 indicates strongly agree.
Items 5, 28, and 33 are reverse-scored. The dimension of extraversion consists of eight items, out of which three are reverse-scored. The dimensions of agreeableness and conscientiousness have nine items each, out of which 4 are reverse-scored for each. Neuroticism consists of 8 items with 3 reverse-scored items and 10 items are for openness to experience with 2 reverse-scored items. The items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale where 1 indicates strongly disagree and 5 indicates strongly agree.
BFI has reflected substantial internal consistency in researches varying from. A convenient sample of teachers who were working as student advisors or counselors in different departments of the university was approached. The respondents have explained the purpose of the study and their consent was taken for the study participation.