"The relationship between termites and protozoa is very close and its associated intestinal protozoa, with comments on their co-evolution. symbionts of termite gut protozoa form a separate phylum of prokaryotes. Applied .. phylogenetic relationship between parabasalid (hypermastigotes and cultivation problems might be in the symbiotic association with flagellates and a. relationship termed mutualism 2. termites, including the intestinal sym Biochemically, the flagellates digest .. levels, poses a problem of considerable.
The environment in which the flagellates live is unusually homeostatic and closely comparable from host to host [ 43 ].
What Kills the Hindgut Flagellates of Lower Termites during the Host Molting Cycle?
The protists are housed in the gut of an individual insect, living within a family Cryptocercus or colony termiteswhich is lodged within the buffered environment of a nest. They are supplied with a steady stream of food, in a liquid, temperature-controlled, safe haven. Their world, then, is fairly constant, with one notable exception: If the relationship of these two insect taxa to their gut fauna during developmental ontogeny is compared, it is obvious that there has been an evolutionary change during the host molting cycle.
In both Cryptocercus and lower termites, neonates acquire the flagellates from a parent or a sibling the latter in established colonies of termites ; the symbiosis is established at about the third instar in both taxa.
The big difference lies in what subsequently occurs during the molting cycles of the developing juvenile host. After the symbiosis is established in Cryptocercus, it is retained through all subsequent ecdyses; it is never lost under natural conditions [ 154445 ]. Developing nymphs of this cockroach are thereafter nutritionally autonomous and capable of a solitary lifestyle.
In termites, however, the large flagellates die prior to subsequent ecdyses and must be re-acquired by feeding on the hindgut fluids of a nest mate. Unlike most vertically transmitted symbioses [ 46 ] then, developing termites have an aposymbiotic phase with respect to the larger gut flagellates. If cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are used as a model of the termite ancestral state, that shift in the host-symbiont relationship can be pinned to a specific node of the Dictyopteran phylogenetic tree.
This paper is an attempt to explore the foundations of that evolutionary transition. Among eusocial insects, the symbiosis with these gut flagellates is a feature unique to the Cryptocercus-termite lineage.
Historically, the death of these flagellates at molt was thought to be a key factor associated with termite eusocial origins, e. Any hypothesis that ignores this termite specific life history characteristic, however, is unsatisfactory and serves to emphasize the current deep-seated bias in analyzing Isopteran eusocial origins in terms of hymenopteran attributes [ 4950 ].
A re-examination of this symbiotic relationship during host molt is overdue for two compelling reasons: Interdependence In both Cryptocercus and lower termites there are two levels of dependence. First, individuals rely on gut flagellates to metabolize and supplement their wood diet; and second, neonates in both taxa rely on their parents in incipient colonies of termites for vertical transfer of the symbionts.
In termites alone, there is a third level of dependence: The dependence on gut flagellates to help metabolize their wood diet, combined with the periodic death of these symbionts precludes independent living in termites. If the host-symbiont relationship in Cryptocercus is used as a model of the termite ancestral state, previously independent insects evolved interdependency.
What Kills the Hindgut Flagellates of Lower Termites during the Host Molting Cycle?
Up to the threshold when the protistans began dying during the termite molting cycle, eusociality in termites may have been reversible, but in interdependent organisms the fitness of one depends on the fitness of another, making cooperation the best strategy [ 52 ]. Misconceptions How the gut symbiosis is established in neonates of Cryptocercus and lower termites, and how the symbiotic bond between the host and its gut flagellates is either maintained, or broken and subsequently re-established during the host molting period are consistently misunderstood in current literature [ 51 ].
Prior to the s, the confusion was understandable because Cleveland et al. Figure 1 [ 15 ], the early authorities on these flagellates, did not understand the social structure and behavior of Cryptocercus; rather, these authors assumed two things about the natural history of the cockroach based on their observations of gut flagellates during Cryptocercus molting cycles.
Termites also account for severe damage to wood in use. Nevertheless, ecologically speaking, termites are beneficial insects that play an essential role in recycling nutrients, forming habitats, aerating and improving soils, and as food for countless predators Radek, ; Kricher, They coverts the cellulose of wood and lignocellulosic materials into carbohydrates before translated into energy.
Cellulose is part of plant structures and the basic structural components of cell wall. To disintegrate this polysaccharide into simple glucose, termites are loaded with as much as different species of microorganisms in their relatively tiny guts Nadin, Nonetheless, not all the microorganisms in the gut of termites function in cellulosic degradation.
Each of the microorganisms is responsible in breaking down specific components of the plant structures to different end products.
The termites provide the needed settlement for the microbes and feed on wood, while the microbes digest the food for their hosts in return.
Such exchange reflects a mutual symbiotic relationship that benefits both the host and symbiont. Before termites could start munching on wood, they need to engage in trophallaxis Wilson, ; Machida et al. In other words, they are exchange food and digestive fluid through mouth-to-mouth stomodeal or feeding on each other's faeces proctodeal Quarcoo, Such fluid contains the essential nutrients and endosymbionts that are passed on to the younger instars by the mature termites James, Termites are lost most of their symbionts at every molt, and termites have to feed themselves with the recycled symbionts via proctodeal trophallaxis James, They rely on symbiotic bacteria embedded on their surfaces to produce some of the digestive enzymes to degrade cellulose for their termite host Radek, Different species of the microbes in termite gut have different needs and release different end-products but they share a common goal-to degrade lignocelluloses into different applicable products.
Termites are therefore a potentially powerful catalyst for feasible bioethanol production. In the high population of termites, there are 2, species of termites, and the majority of them occur only within tropical and sub-tropical latitudes Kricher, Termites are playing significant roles in food webs and influence the provision of ecosystem such as decomposition. They occur in vast numbers in tropical regions, which exceed g m-2 and 10, individuals m-2 in the tropical forests Eggleton et al.
But their area prolongs to increase included Italy, New Zealand, and Australia. In addition, the distribution of Drywood termites, Subterranean termites, Formosan termites, and Dampwood termites is varying by region.
Termites & Intestinal Flagellates by shanice anderson on Prezi
Drywood termites are live in the countries that do not reach freezing temperatures during winter and they are found along East Coast from the Mid-Atlantic States to South Florida, along the Gulf Coast, through the Southwest into California, and in Hawaii.
The Subterranean termites which live in the soil underground; are able to survive in wide range of temperatures. In US, the subterranean termites are found in every state, except Alaska.
As a pest of forest tree, Dampwood termites are rarely damage wood in buildings. They do not nest in the soil but mainly nest in decaying stumps, logs and eucalypt trees. In Malaysia alone, it is estimated there could be species of termites representing 48 genera that live in different habitats in the country Tho, A termite can correspond to up biomass of invertebrates in decomposing trunks Bandeira and Torres, At least ten identified species are known to invade wooden structures, paper products, cotton clothings or ornamental trees.
Other essentially threatening species in Malaysia include Odontotermes sp.