Borders of China - Wikipedia
Relations between India and Iran are touching a new heights. the country with a new gateway to Afghanistan, Middle East and Central Asian countries It would counter Chinese presence in the Arabian Sea through the support to Pakistan. Touch device users, explore by touch or with swipe gestures. The U.S. president also threatened any country that “helps Iran in its quest of nuclear . of the re-imposed sanctions do not lie in Europe, but in China, India, Russia, and Turkey. Pakistan has traditionally kept India out of the Afghan markets. Historically, Iran and Pakistan enjoyed friendly relations. Along those lines, India has substantially increased its influence in Afghanistan, and it has recently, too, of sectarianism in both countries, as well as instability on their borders. China has suggested its broader CPEC project in Pakistan could.
Here we will focus on Pakistan's international borders and some interesting facts about them. Pakistan-China The border between Pakistan and China is nearly kilometres long and is situated in the northeast of Pakistan.
A number of agreements took place between and in which the borderline was determined between the two countries.
The famous agreement called the Sino-Pakistan Agreement or the Sino-Pakistan Frontier Agreement, was passed in between Pakistan and China, according to which both countries agreed on the border between them.
As the border was established by Sir Cyril Radcliffe — the chairman of the Indo-Pakistan Boundary Commission — therefore it was named after him.
The Pakistan-India border is almost 2, kilometres long. After the Russian Revolution ofthe Afghan government seized the opportunity to renew its claims to Panjdeh. The Afghan army actually advanced as far as Marv. The Soviet-Afghan friendship treaty of 28 February formally recognized the historic rights of Afghanistan in the region but made all retrocession of territory subject to a prior referendum among the local populations, which was never organized.
The last portion of the Russo-Afghan boundary to be drawn was the eastern end. The upper course of the Amu Darya did in fact provide less of a natural boundary than the diplomats had believed. It seemed to him as indefensible strategically as it was devoid of economic interest. Frequent confrontations between Russian and Afghan armies in the region, which was becoming better known owing to the activity of Russian and British explorers for example, the Ney-Elias mission, from May,to October,attested to the political instability of the area.
At the beginning of Ridgeway contemplated extending the work of his commission to this part of the frontier. He even put in hand the necessary preparations for a stay on the spot, but the project was blocked at the last minute by an Afghan veto. It was not until that H. After having been for twenty years the legal northeastern boundary of Afghanistan, the upper Amu Darya thus became so in fact.
Anglo-Russian negotiations were begun inand an agreement was signed on 11 March Following a scenario that had become standard, the two regional superpowers appointed a joint commission, headed by Major General M. For a long time after its delimitation the artificial northern boundary of Afghanistan continued to be crossed frequently by migrations and commercial traffic, whether regular or occasional, from nearby or far away.
At the beginning of the 20th century there were still two caravansaries in Bukhara specifically for the lodging of Afghan merchants and caravans.
The sovietization of Central Asia after brought the official closing of the frontier, which did not prevent significant numbers of Central Asian refugees from entering Afghanistan up to the middle of the s. Nevertheless, over the years the frontier has been progressively sealed, with the construction of a chain of guard posts and more frequent patrols on the Soviet side.
Today it is closed to all civilian traffic, though occasionally it is breached by clandestine groups of Afghan guerrillas for example, raids against the city of Pyandzh, in Tajikistan, on 9 March and April Commercial traffic can cross only at three frontier posts, which also serve as compulsory transfer points Figure The distance of this hub from the capital 1, km from Kabul by road and its sparsely populated hinterland explain the modest traffic: It is the northern frontier post closest to Kabul kmand its Afghan hinterland is prosperous.
This bridge, which is m long, Its total cost At the Afghan end a modern harbor complex and a new city have been built.
The following summer a joint commission arrived in the field to demarcate the boundary, and a final protocol was signed in Kabul in March, The principle followed was very simple: The frontier 76 km follows, at an altitude of more than 5, m, one of the major watersheds on the Asian continent, that which separates the Amu Darya basin to the west from the Tarim basin to the east see the detailed map published in Prescott, p.
For a long time the British remained indecisive about where to halt their conquests in the west.
BOUNDARIES iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan – Encyclopaedia Iranica
Faced with what amounted to a buffer zone between the Safavid and Mughal empires, the British newcomers had two main options. The alternative was to limit contacts and causes of friction with the Pashtun and the Baluch by prudently fixing the Anglo-Indian frontier outside their territory along a line from Peshawar to Bannu to Jacobabad, parallel to the Indus, or even on the Indus itself, the only really natural northwestern frontier of India: After much hesitation, a compromise solution had to be adopted.
The increase in Pashtun raids on the Indus plains led to the temporary success of the partisans of the first solution. In order to forestall a major frontier crisis and to guarantee permanently the advantages already gained, the British government then agreed to a compromise boundary.
Geography of Iran
His mission to Kabul, initially planned forcould not finally take place until September-November, A number of major rivers and mountain ranges, as well as several traditional tribal territories, were thus bisected by a boundary that is certainly the most unsatisfactory and the most artificial that can be imagined.
Durand, in the meantime named minister plenipotentiary to Tehran, took no part in the actual demarcation of the boundary that bears his name. The main part of the work took place from April,to May,but a certain number of problems remained unsolved. The Kabul agreement was in fact so imprecise and the map annexed to it on so small a scale that differences in interpretation were innumerable and sometimes of long duration.
Geography of Iran - Wikipedia
Because of the length of the frontier, it was divided into four sectors, each assigned to a separate boundary commission. It was the Hindu Kush commission, under the direction of R. The Afghans claimed the entire tribal territory of the Mohmand q. The English commissioner, J. On other sections of the Durand Line the work of demarcation was easier, even though it was never entirely free from argument. The Kurram commission, under the direction of J. The boundary line here respects major tribal and religious alignments: The Waziristan commission, placed under the sole direction of an English officer, R.
In view of the difficulty of the task, it divided into two subcomissions. Anderson demarcated it with thirty-eight boundary posts.
White King set up thirty-one boundary posts over a distance no greater than 81 km. The Politics of Survival, Boulder, Co. Shahrani, The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan. Adaptation to Closed Frontiers, Seattle, Wash.
Urban, War in Afghanistan, London, Daniel Balland Originally Published: December 15, Last Updated: October 14, This article is available in print.