Other minor changes to the media ownership rules were introduced by the Broadcasting Tribunal in relation to breaches of the cross-media rules. .. The upshot of all these changes is that in the future a media market might be defined by. A media policy paradigm has shifted from a media to a communication-noriented approach. policy model and to discuss how this model would help the media better should be media literacy and self- and co-regulation of the media sector. 11The relationship between the size and wealth of a media market and the. Media regulation is the control or guidance of mass media by governments and other bodies. This regulation, via law, rules or procedures, can have various goals, The negative defined liberties, legislating the role of media institutions in society At the early period of the modern history of China, the relationship between.
Television A person must not control television broadcasting licences whose combined licence area exceeds 75 per cent of the population of Australia, or more than one licence within a licence area section Foreign persons must not be in a position to control a licence and the total of foreign interests must not exceed 20 per cent section There are also limits on multiple directorships section 55 and foreign directors section Radio A person must not be in a position to control more than two licences in the same licence area section Multiple directorships are also limited section Cross-Media Control Under section 60 a person must not control: There are also similar limits on cross-media directorships section Subscription Television Broadcasting Licences A foreign person must not have company interests exceeding 20 per cent in a broadcasting subscription licence, and the total of foreign company interests in any licence must not exceed 35 per cent section Back to top Foreign Investment Controls There are a number of controls on foreign investment in the media in addition to those contained in the Broadcasting Services Act.
Proposals involving portfolio share holdings of five per cent or more must also be approved. The maximum permitted aggregate foreign non-portfolio interest in national and metropolitan newspapers is 30 per cent, with a 25 per cent limit on any single foreign shareholder.
The aggregate non-portfolio limit for provincial and suburban newspapers is 50 per cent.
Details of the Government's foreign investment policy with regard to the media can be obtained from Appendix A of the Annual Report of the Foreign Investment Review Board. Michael Duffy, directed the Forward Development Unit of the Department of Transport and Communication to undertake a study of the ownership and control rules for commercial television. The resulting report Ownership and Control of Commercial Television: Future Policy Directions August proposed various options for imposing limits on cross-media ownership.
On 27 November the Minister issued a Press Release detailing the Government's proposed changes to the ownership and control provisions of commercial television licences. In summary, the proposals involved the replacement of the existing 'two station rule' with an audience reach rule, which limited any person to controlling interests in licences serving a maximum of 75 per cent of the population.
In addition, cross-media restrictions were to be imposed which were designed to prevent a person from controlling both a television licence and a newspaper published 4 times per week and having more than 50 per cent of its circulation in the same area served by the television licence. These proposed changes were introduced by the Broadcasting Ownership and Control Act which amended the Broadcasting Act Under this legislation, a person owning a television licence could not own more than 15 per cent of a newspaper published 4 days per week which had more than 50 per cent of its circulation in the same area as that of the licence.
However, a newspaper proprietor was restricted to owning just 5 per cent of a television licence in the same area. In order to effect passage of the Bill through the Senate, the Government reduced the maximum population reach for television licences from 75 per cent to 60 per cent.
Media Ownership Regulation in Australia – Parliament of Australia
According to the then Minister for Communications, the Hon. Duffy MP, the cross-media rules were introduced in order to: However, in Latvia the national radio and Television Council has not acted to defend public media against political pressure open society institute,p. The rapid increase in internet usage since the end of the s is related to several factors, such as government initiatives, liberalization of the telecommunications market foreign investments, increasing competition, and decreasing pricesand the development of e-banking.
All government institutions were pooled into one e-government services portal http: Under government and NGO initiatives, the internet was made accessible for segments of the population that are of little interest to commercial vendors—the focus has been on schools and rural areas. Sincecompetition in the Estonian telecommunications market increased, resulting in a drop in consumer prices for internet access.
Frequent internet users in Estonia enjoy various advantages; internet communication especially among young people is multifunctional.
Media Ownership Regulation in Australia
It has been used for services, interpersonal communication, and information searches. The number of those in Estonia using the internet frequently daily, or a few times per week gradually increased.
Sixty-five percent of the populationinhabitants uses the internet. Every second person between the ages of 6 and 74 uses the internet at least five days per week. In Latvia, 48 percent of the population between 15 and 74 has used the internet sometime in the last six months; in Lithuania 37 percent; in Estonia 63 percent EMOR, The number of internet users in Estonia gradually increased more than four times from to Latvia and Lithuania, which previously had lower internet access and expansion of use than Estonia, are now developing rapidly in this area and approaching the levels of their Bal-tic neighbor.
Education policy implementation on media literacy and communications skills—reflected in the national curricula 17Unlike media policy, media literacy and communications competences are fairly recent policy issues.
Several of the central issues have been addressed since the s, but the movement has received increased support in recent years Yates, According to LemmenEU Member states already have substantial media education activity; the Scandinavian countries, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Hungary provide positive examples. Structures for implementation of media education in schools differ from one country to the next, depending on the priorities of the government and funding.
In Baltic countries, media literacy has only recently started to develop as a policy issue. Media education varies widely across Europe, not only in terms of its terminology—the most common versions including media education, media literacy, information literacy, moving image education—but also in terms of its implementation Lemmen, The goal of media education could also provide a grounding upon which students can better develop their own idiosyncratic responses Kubey, Media education could also be seen as a special subject one can finish a secondary school by taking this as a final exam, after completion of a hour course.
The content of this special course is not strictly regulated and can therefore be freely created by the teacher. In addition, certain sub-topics are written into the national curricula of specific subjects e.
- Media Freedom and Pluralism
This definition partly overlaps the internationally accepted EU Commission definition of media literacy, except for the critical thinking and reading abilities. Little documented material is available on how these competences should be taught in the classroom methodologically and what resources would be needed. In other words, the concept of media literacy or a communications competence is vague and unfeasible, unless the school is motivated to develop a more focused approach.
The vagueness of the concept becomes apparent when we analyze the level of generalization. For example, the national curriculum requires that children be able, by Grades 4 to 6, to distinguish between fact and opinion. The methodologically crucial questions, such as: What the different channels are, how to distinguish between discourse or text types, etc. It is a vicious circle: The textbooks Estonian language and literature, social sciences that include mediarelated topics are mostly theme-oriented advertising, news rather than focused on training of communication competences.
Due to national political upheaval, the new curriculum was not implemented.
Media Policy and Governance - Communication - Oxford Bibliographies
Thus the biggest barrier to the implementation of the advanced media literacy and communications skills concept rests with the lack of political will and decisions concerning citizen education in an information society.
The program project was initially implemented in and concluded in Its goal was to teach students information literacy skills, to stimulate critical thinking and to educate children to use new IT as well as other media-related products. The program also aimed to teach children to use new information products of the knowledge age as well as adequately assess these products to fit individual as well as social needs.
The negative defined liberties, legislating the role of media institutions in society and securing their freedom of expression, publication, private ownership, commerce, and enterprise, must be balanced by legislation ensuring the positive freedom of citizens of their access to information.
Balance between state and market. Media is at a position between the commerce and democracy.
These require the balance between rights and obligations. To maintain the contractual balance, society expects the media to take their privilege responsibly. Besides, market forces failed to guarantee the wide range of public opinions and free expression.
Intend to the expectation and ensurance, regulation over the media formalized.
More than websites have already been blocked in Egypt prior to the new law in The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. October Learn how and when to remove this template message At the early period of the modern history of China, the relationship between government and society was extremely unbalanced.
Government held power over the Chinese people and controlled the media, making the media highly political. The economic reform decreased the governing function of media and created a tendency for mass media to stand for the society but not only authority.
The previous unbalanced structure between powered government and weak society was loosed by the policy in some level, but not truly changed until the emergence of Internet.