Plants and Animals - College of Agriculture and Bioresources - University of Saskatchewan
The different species play important roles for food production and income generation and have also other important non-food functions. Efficient livestock production requires good management practices which . At the same time, millions of rural people still keep livestock in traditional production systems, External links. ABSTRACT: The relationships between breeding and feeding and the global systems and the implications for the environment, welfare of animals and humans is evaluated. Animal .. and spontaneous plant species; the animal species and. The relationship between animals and plants in agriculture is not always traditional farming system outputs from crop and livestock production usually cannot.
Some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive.
Woodland for [feeding] 70 pigs. Improvements to the plough allowed the soil to be tilled to a greater depth.
Horses took over from oxen as the main providers of traction, new ideas on crop rotation were developed and the growing of crops for winter fodder gained ground.
Columbian Exchange Exploration and colonisation of North and South America resulted in the introduction into Europe of such crops as maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc, while the principal Old World livestock — cattle, horses, sheep and goats — were introduced into the New World for the first time along with wheat, barley, rice and turnips.
Selective breeding for desired traits was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century.
One of his most important breeding programs was with sheep. Using native stock, he was able to quickly select for large, yet fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool. The Lincoln Longwool was improved by Bakewell and in turn the Lincoln was used to develop the subsequent breed, named the New or Dishley Leicester.
It was hornless and had a square, meaty body with straight top lines. Under his influence, English farmers began to breed cattle for use primarily as beef. Long-horned heifers were crossed with the Westmoreland bull to create the Dishley Longhorn.
There was a problem providing the content you requested
As the ecological impact of this land management strategy is similar to the impact of such natural disturbances as a wildfirethis agricultural system shares many beneficial characteristics with a natural habitat, including the promotion of biodiversity.
Agriculture attempts to channel as much incoming solar radiation as possible into usable commodities through selection of appropriate varieties and provision of suitable environments. Plant or crop production provides the basis for any subsequent consumption by livestock or humans. In theory, humans in the position of primary consumers should produce the greatest efficiency, but the relationship is complex and not always rational.
Most crops are grown primarily because some part of the plant can be consumed directly by people. Under many conditions, however, much of the plant material cannot be used because it is indigestible by humans. Ruminants cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloesother herbivorous animals horses, camels and some omnivores pigs, ducks, geese possess specially modified digestive systems that can extract substantial amounts of nutrients from plant material that is not suited for human food.
These species have the digestive ability to satisfy much of their requirements for both maintenance and some production through grazing on marginal land and consumption of the considerable residues or by-products left over after extraction of plant components that can be used directly in human diets. However, faster growth or higher yields can be obtained whenever herbivores or omnivores receive "better quality" feeds such as cereal grains that might be suited for direct consumption by humans.
Critics of intensive livestock production allege that when consuming grains, domesticated animals compete directly with humans and are responsible for considerable malnutrition in lesser developed countries. Such simplistic arguments are naive since almost all intensively managed animal units operate in affluent, industrialized countries where cereal grains grow in surplus rather than deficit amounts.This Farm of the Future Uses No Soil and 95% Less Water
Farmers often find they cannot dispose of surplus cereals for even the cost of production so cycle these crops through animals to obtain "value-added" products. A Simple Characterization of Systems for Obtaining Animal Products Exploitation animals survive on whatever the environment provides input limited to human labor outputs are extremely variable e.
Animal husbandry - Wikipedia
Pastoralism - This form of animal agriculture is practiced by nomadic people with large, migratory herds and flocks grazing over communal lands. They limit inputs to regulating animal movement over large areas following natural feed supply with occasional vaccinations against the most serious diseases if these are government provided and enforced. Pastoralists are survival rather than market oriented.
Natural cycles are followed so livestock product availability is limited to only certain seasons of the year. Subsistence farming - Mixed farming with small numbers of pigs, poultry and small ruminants, usually scavenging or grazing on communal land. Livestock receive crop by-products, residues and kitchen wastes whenever these are available.