BBC - History - British History in depth: King John and Richard I: Brothers and Rivals
John (24 December – 19 October ), also known as John Lackland, was King of Although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty The character of John's relationship with his second wife, Isabella of. Who were the key personalities in the history of Magna Carta? Find out more about King John, the barons, Pope Innocent III, Archbishop. Disenchanted by the perceived cowardice of their king, fully two All those barons who had been prepared to oppose John now.
He also angered the Pope and was excommunicated from the church. They decided to rebel.
After taking London, John agreed to negotiate with them. Here the barons demanded that King John sign a document called the Magna Carta guaranteeing them certain rights. By signing the document, King John agreed to do his duty as King of England, upholding the law and running a fair government. In return, the barons agreed to stand down and surrender London.
Civil War It turns out that neither side had any intention of following the agreement. Not long after signing, King John attempted to nullify the agreement. He even had the Pope declare the document "illegal and unjust".
At the same time, the barons didn't surrender London. Soon the country of England was facing civil war. Stories from his childhood suggest that he was probably bullied and beaten if he complained.
BBC Bitesize - KS3 History - King John and Magna Carta - Revision 1
Warren can't help but point out that at an age when his brothers Richard and Geoffrey were stamping their authority on Aquitaine and Brittany, John had squandered his opportunities in Ireland. The criticism is reasonably justified, but to understand why, we need to look at his upbringing.
In a family so obsessed with its rights and possessions, being the last of four sons was not an enviable position. Henry was clear about his hopes for his first three sons, but until Ireland cropped up, John seems to have been left out of the picture. Stories from his childhood suggest that he was probably bullied and beaten if he complained of his plight. It may be due to this perceived lack of character that Henry was loath to incorporate John into his schemes.
At various times, John was destined for the Church, for an Italian marriage and for piecemeal lands that belonged to his brothers and which they refused to give him. His own father gave him the disparaging nickname 'Lackland', and it was not until the death of his oldest brother, Henry the Younger, that John began to figure in King Henry's plans. He tried to solve this by ordering Richard to hand over Aquitaine to John, with the implication that Richard would take Henry the Younger's place as heir apparent.
Henry II's policy over Ireland was always one of reaction. Yet his plans foundered on the mistrust of his sons and the Angevins' stubborn possessiveness. Richard would not give up Aquitaine and began fortifying his castles against any attempts to seize them from him.
In a fit of rage, Henry told John he should raise an army and seize the duchy for himself. It was not a serious suggestion, but John took him at his word, making a pact with his brother Geoffrey, in which they both invaded Poitou.
There were various conferences between the interested parties to settle this dispute - one of them is depicted in the Hollywood film The Lion in Winter.
Byhowever, Henry had given up any idea of prising Richard from his patrimony, and was more concerned with Ireland. Henry's policy over Ireland was always one of reaction. Hugh's policy of fair dealing with the Irish seems to have been too successful, for byHenry had grown suspicious of him. In the light of Hugh's marriage to Rory's daughter inHenry probably saw another Strongbow looming on the horizon.
The English king's solution was typical. He knighted the year-old John, gave him an army of knights and a treasury, and sent him to Ireland to take charge of the situation. John took a lot of young hangers-on with him, who ridiculed the Irish chieftains when they turned up to pay homage, and to whom he made land grants that antagonised the Norman settlers.
So when the Irish buried their differences and united against him, John found himself isolated and impeded by the locals. Unable to pay his mercenaries because of the extravagance of his way of life, he was eventually forced to abandon Ireland in September, blaming Hugh de Lacy for obstructionism.
With the death of Geoffrey in a tournament, and the worsening relationship between Henry and Richard, John became Henry's favourite. Yet there is absolutely no evidence that Henry considered passing Richard over as his heir. John had failed to oust his brother from Aquitaine and, at an age when Richard was browbeating that province into submission, he had squandered his opportunities in Ireland.
Henry seems to have recognised his youngest son's limitations, though he took a perverse pleasure in keeping Richard guessing. The paranoia this induced backfired spectacularly, when Richard made common cause with Louis of France and declared war on Henry in Old and infirm, Henry was hounded from castle to castle, but what finally broke him was the discovery that John had betrayed him and gone over to Richard's side.
Why Did The Barons Rebel Against King John in ? by Ella Pearson on Prezi
He died, a broken man, on 6 July The new king also had enough respect for John's troublemaking tendencies to ban him from England for three years whilst he Richard went on crusade. However, against Richard's better judgement, he was prevailed upon by his mother Eleanor to allow John back into England. John's mother Eleanor died the following month.
John's predecessors had ruled using the principle of vis et voluntas, or "force and will", taking executive and sometimes arbitrary decisions, often justified on the basis that a king was above the law. Several new processes had been introduced to English law under Henry II, including novel disseisin and mort d'ancestor. Economy of England in the Middle Ages A silver King John pennyamongst the first struck in Dublin One of John's principal challenges was acquiring the large sums of money needed for his proposed campaigns to reclaim Normandy.
Revenue from the royal demesne was inflexible and had been diminishing slowly since the Norman conquest. Matters were not helped by Richard's sale of many royal properties inand taxation played a much smaller role in royal income than in later centuries. English kings had widespread feudal rights which could be used to generate income, including the scutage system, in which feudal military service was avoided by a cash payment to the king.
He derived income from fines, court fees and the sale of charters and other privileges. A silver King John penny The result was a sequence of innovative but unpopular financial measures.
King John and Magna Carta
This inflationary pressure was to continue for the rest of the 13th century and had long-term economic consequences for England. The result was political unrest across the country.
One group was the familiares regis, John's immediate friends and knights who travelled around the country with him. They also played an important role in organising and leading military campaigns.