they had on the relationship between leaders and followers. and “playing the game” impact on the relationship to create an influence The following three sections therefore contain a review of leadership theories from the This perspective can be appreciated as an extreme version of followers as moderators of. Analyze the influence of ethical leadership on the relationship between leaders and both the quality of the leader-follower relationships and employee performance. .. A leader can influence directly the performance of the staff when helping to . In this study, the evaluation of individual performance was made through. The purpose of this study is to explore the evidence related to the influence of . the leader–follower relationship and follower performance The Journal of Applied Management . Third, the role of moderating variables will be examined. Key variables Dyadic relationship quality (DRQ) A review of the scholarly literature.
A conceptual model is developed on the basis of their relationship with a view to analyze which one leadership style is most appropriate to improve the performance of employees of an organization. Consequently, performance was operationally perceived as: The above should lead to efficiency, specialization, effective feedback and good organizational relations. Both terms leadership and employee performance cohesion should be proved through styles and approaches in attempt to cause efficiency which variable in this study was leadership and indeed Carter [ 2 ] defined leadership as the ability to employ managerial competencies to organized performance processes by inspiring, igniting and motivating teams to meet set organizational goals.
This theory propounded that leaders should adopt that style which best to the situation and immediately stimulate the employee performance. Leadership is increasingly understood to involve persuasion and explanation as well as ability to identify, affirm, and renew the values of the group the leader represents. Managerial expertise, technical skills, cultural literacy and other relevant knowledge and skills are not sufficient virtues for the leaders whose lives will be dedicated to public services.
An effective leader has a responsibility to provide guidance and share the knowledge to the employee to lead them for better performance and make them expert for maintaining the quality. And become head of all team members is such a great responsibility. The introduction of the clear standards of leadership promotes the core values and maturity on their role and responsibility.
Statement of problem Employee performance includes executing defined duties, meeting deadlines, employee competencyand effectiveness and efficiency in doing work. Various organizations need strong leadership styles that stimulate the employee performance. Some organizations such as tractor factory face the problems: This problem happen due to lack of strategic interventions of specific leadership styles to the particular situations was predicted as the problem at hand. This problem was continuously affecting employee performance.
It is believed that an effective organization rooted from the propellers or on the business leaders. The idea of effective leadership is also adopted in the world of technology. The employees also perceived that there is a need of a leader who should not only have to lead people but also be effective. So, they need an effective leader who can lead the people toward the changes and performance improvement. How does a leader perform under the consideration of effective performance of employees and firm?
How does leaders effectiveness changes the performance. Specific Objectives The research in testing the effectiveness of a leadership is fueled by the objectives. A research without purpose is worthless and part of the aims is to introduce the best leadership approach. To explore the leadership styles that contributes to employee performance. To explain the relationship between the effective leadership styles and performance of employees.
To know the significance of leadership styles in the employee performance. To develop the model that shows relationship among different styles of leadership and employee performance.
What are the outcomes if there is an effective leadership style? What is the relationship between participative leadership and employee performance in an organization? What is the relationship between the Democratic leadership style and employee performance?
To what extent does the authoritative style affect employee performance in an organization? Significance of the Study As such, the completion of this dissertation will provide understanding of the concept present so as to generate data and information that every planner could use in order to come up with strategies, plans and designs that will strategically position them in the highly competitive, diverse, and complex business environment that is experienced at present.
By fulfilling the aims that were stated in the objectives section, this study will be helpful for other researchers who may be focusing on understanding the concept of effective leadership. The notable significance of this study is the possibility that other researchers may be able to use the findings in this study for future studies that will create a huge impact on society.
This study finding can be used for other findings that might prove to be helpful in introducing changes to the business.
Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Performance
The present study findings have been significant in number of ways. It has been contributed to the body of knowledge by; since the present area is highly under researched in Pakistan and developing countries. No study has been found to investigate the effects of leadership styles to increase the performance of employees in Pakistan.
The collection of data is of recent decade articles. Literature Review In this section firstly what is leadership is? What are leadership styles? And then explained the theoretical framework which elaborates the effects of three leadership styles participative, autocratic, and democratic on the employee performance. Leadership Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others toward the accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation.
Leadership is an ability of a manager to induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. Leadership can be defined as the capacity to influence a group realization of the goal. Leaders are required to develop the future vision, and to motivate the organizational members to want to achieve the visions and to improve the performance.
Koudri suggests that leadership is to deal and cope with change, focusing on the long-term and the big picture, not always doing to safe himself in fact to take risks, and concentrating on people and their values, not just the bottom line [ 5 ]. Leadership styles The business writer Daniel [ 7 ] categorized different leadership styles. They suggested that leadership styles could be explained on a scale ranging from autocratic through democratic to participative to show the degree of authority and decision makes power of leaders and employees Figure 1.
Decisions are made within teams, with each member having equal inputs. He has a range of responsibilities associated with people, process and standards.
Martin style may use a democratic approach when setting training budgets. Participative leadership style is that involves all members of a team in identifying essential goals and developing procedures or strategies for reach those goals. From this perspective, participative leadership can be seen as a leadership styles that relies heavily on the leader functioning as a facilitator rather than simply issuing orders or making assignments.
This type of involved leadership style can be utilized in business settings, volunteer organizations and even in the function of the home. One of the main benefits of participative leadership is that the process allows for the development of the additional leaders who can serve the organization at a later date. Because leaders who favor this style encourage active involvement on the part of everyone on the team, people often are able to express their creativity and demonstrate abilities and talents that would not be made apparent otherwise that ultimately improve the performance of employees.
The discovery of these hidden assets help to benefit the work of the current team, but also alerts the organization to people within the team who should be provided with opportunities to further develop some skill or ability or future use. Although each person will have their own preferred leadership style, the most effective leaders adopt a style which appropriate for the situation.
They will consider several factors in deciding which to use: The task-is it business critical? Must a decision be made immediately? Some have interpreted leaders in simple term such as the influence, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards achievement of group goals [ 2 ].
The emphasis of this definition is that ideally, people should be encouraged to develop not only willingness to work but also willingness to work with zeal and confidence. Leadership has also been interpreted more specifically as the use of authority in decision making exercised as an attribute of position, personal knowledge or wisdom.Annual Performance Review Best Practices
Ejio [ 6 ] defined leadership as a social influence process in which the leader seeks voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational objectives. Similarly, Tennenbaun et al. Adebakin and Gbadamosi [ 8 ] defined leadership as the process of influencing and directing the activities of an organized group towards the achievement of the group of organization set objectives.
The foregoing Lions show leadership been based on function of personality, behavioural category, the role of a leader and their ability to achieve effective performance from others, the interpersonal behaviour and the process of communications.
Despite these variations, there are at least three important implications of these definitions. Firstly, leadership is a process engaged in by certain individual leaders. It is an on going activity in an organization. Secondly, it involves other people in form of subordinates who by their willingness are influenced by the leader.
Thirdly, the aim of leadership is accomplishment of goal and objectives, a pointer that the leaders attempt at influencing the subordinate are directional and therefore aim at level of achievement. Concepts of leadership According to Lawal [ 1 ] leadership is the process of influencing others to work willingly toward an organizational goal with confidence. This concept clarify that the responsibility of the superior is to direct behaviour into channels that promote the achievement of organization and departmental goals.
Further studies have been carried out by researchers to examine the issue of leadership In the view of Eze [ 11 ], he sees Leadership as a relational concept involving both the influencing agent and the person being influenced. This he claimed means that without followers there can be no Leader. He further indicated that the factor which interact to produce an effective leader include not only the abilities and characteristics of the group he is leading, but also the characteristics of the situation in which his leadership takes place.
To round it up, Eze [ 11 ] described the Nigeria leader as having authoritarian leadership characteristics and practices. They seem to maintain a rigid dictatorial approach to management as well as a master-servant rider horse relationship with subordinates. A Nigeria by nature and training is autocratic and demands nothing but respect and obedience from his is subordinates. Okafor [ 12 ] explains that Nigerian leader in the foreign owned private sector is also an autocrat who maintains a master-servant relationship with his subordinates.
He equally hold the concessionary view of public office, but unlike his counterpart in the public sector, he is conscious, works hard to reach target set for him by his foreign masters and is highly responsible and accountable. He does this because of his fear of dismissal and because he enjoys good working conditions and good fringe benefits. Akpala [ 10 ] concluded that the consequences of this miserable style include the characteristic work attitude of the Nigerian work force.
Leadership and Organization Leading is a process of influencing and directing the activities of an organized group to accomplish goals by communicating with them. Leadership is therefore premised on interpersonal relationship; hence a leader must belong to a group. What this implies is the leadership thrives in an organization. According to Adebakin and Gbadamosi [ 8 ] organization comprise of two or more people who exist on continuous basis with the intention of accomplishing set goal s.
They are the management, time people and task within an organization. Leadership is the management function that is concerned with continuous search of the best way to influence subordinates to accomplish goals and objective within the continuous process of coordinating man, money and material.
Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Performance | OMICS International
It involves the sum total of behavior of an executive in his direct relation with subordinates. Management as the body of leadership determines policies, rules and procedures guiding relationships and activities in an organization, which to an extent determines the effectiveness in achieving the organization goals and objectives. Where two or more people interact, the environment for the formation of a group is created. When individual in the group coexist and associate for common purpose and when the group persists for a sufficient period of time organization develops.
The role of a leader in the group is to provide direction, coordinate the activities of the individual members constituting the group and to ensure consistency. The image of the leader and the quality of leadership is reflected through the organization and the attitude of the subordinate in the performance of their task. Thus, the leader in the use of his organizing power decides the pattern of work behavior, task operation and ethnic of subordinates.
Leadership is vital to employee performance and corporate excellence. Consequently organization spends substantial sum of money in search of effective leadership in training of their personnel in effective leadership behavior.
There is also relative scarcity of effective leadership and that is why organizations search constantly for it and lead them to effect, design and develop all the effective leadership potentials possible in those who are associated with corporate management. Leadership Behavior and Styles Leadership behavior and style is the way in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in which managers typically behave towards members of the group, Onosode [ 13 ] further stated that there are many dimensions to leadership and many possible ways of describing leadership style such as dictatorialunitary, bureaucratic, charismatic, consultative, participative and abdicatorial.
Autocratic leadership Adebakin and Gbadamosi [ 8 ] described an autocratic leader as one who is very conscious of his position and has little trust or faith in the subordinates, he feels that pay is just a reward for work and it is only the reward which can motivate.
The leader gives order and insists follower to carry out Figure 1. Illustrates the flow of influence in autocratic leadership situation. He also identifies some shortcoming of autocratic leadership as: Criticism and praises are objectively given and a feeling of responsibility is developed within the group.
Akpala [ 10 ] argued that this form of leadership is claimed to be earliest amongst all other leadership style. The managers discuss with the subordinates before he issues general or broad orders from which subordinates feel free to act on. The superior allows the subordinates opportunity to use their initiative and make contributions.
The leaders also offer supports to the subordinates in accomplishing task Figure 2. Illustrates the flow of influence in Democratic leadership situation.
Laissez-faire leadership Laissez-faire type of leadership is at the other end of the continuum from the autocratic style. With this type, leaders attempt to pass the responsibility of decision making process to the group.
The group is loosely structured, as the leader has no confidence in his leadership ability. Decision making under this leadership is performed by whoever that is willing to accept it. As a result, the task may not be undertaken and tile conditionally become chaotic Flippo et al.
Impact of Leadership Style on Organization Performance: A Critical Literature Review
Illustrates the flow of influence in laissez-faire leadership situation. Different Types of Power Within an organization, leadership influences will be dependent upon the type of power that the leader can exercise over the workers Power is the capacity to influence. Okafor [ 12 ] defines power as capacity to influence another through a control over needed resources. The exercise of power is a process, which helps to explain how different people can influence the behaviors and actions of others.
Adebakin Gbadamosi [ 8 ]. Legitimate power is based on authority, for example, that of a manager and supervisor within the hierarchical structure of an organization. Coercive power Coercive power is an opposite side of reward power. It is based on credibility and clear evidence of knowledge or expertise. The expert power, just as reward, power is usually limited to the amount of reward the leader can offer, and a well-defined area or specialism respectively.
Such leader may not posses power or reward or punishment but may still exercise power over subordinates because he commands their respect or esteem. Organization powers to influence as noted by Akpala [ 10 ] are directional anti arc aimed at some level of goal achievement and accomplishment.
Qualities of a Good Leader What makes a leader effective? Most people when probably asked would admit that effective leadership results from certain desirable characteristics from certain desirable qualities which manifest in result, rather than describing it.
However,exhibits the following qualities. Dedication Organizational effectiveness is a function of how committed a leader is to the goals and objectives of that organization. Klein and Kim suggest that in addition to the good relationship between the leader and their employees encouraging better individual performance, their influence on the employee's commitment to work-related goals was critical to achieving good performance.
This concept is considered crucial in terms of motivation by the goal setting theory and the achievement of results. However, as shown by many studies on the definition of objectives, this relationship depends on the commitment of the individual to the goals established Klein et al.
Once the performance is a factor resulting from goal commitment, it seems important to investigate the antecedents that may affect this attitude. In a meta-analysis performed by Klein et al. Also relevant to this process are situational factors, such as the difficulty, specificity, and complexity of the goal, the presence and type of feedback received, and leadership and supervisory support.
However, a few studies have investigated the impact of leadership on goal commitment. Piccolo and Colquit found a positive relationship in terms of leadership style. According to the authors, leaders with a transformational leadership style have greater influence over the commitment of their followers to their goals.
Another indication of this study is that this relationship appears to be mediated by the quality of the relationship between leaders and followers LMXsuggesting that the followers who experience higher quality in this relationship may be more open to social influence, which in turn builds confidence and commitment to their leaders. So, in order to broaden the discussion about the impact of leadership on the commitment of the followers to their goals, the fourth hypothesis of this research suggests that the quality of the relationship between leaders and followers LMX has an influence on the commitment to goals among employees.
The quality of the relationship between leaders and followers LMX affects positively the commitment to the work-related goal. Elaborated by the authors. The company operates in the Brazilian national context, and has about of 8, employees. The sample of clerks in this study was selected out of convenience, not randomly, and consisted of employees and 15 shop managers who work in the sales units of the company to which the researchers had access.
As regards to the level of education, the average years of schooling was The average amount of experience with sales among the participants was 5. With respect to the shop managers, As for the level of education, the average years of schooling was of 15 years: The average time in company among the managers was 6. The instruments used were different for the two groups considered.
Each salesperson was asked to evaluate the leader through the Portuguese version of Ethical Leadership Scale ELS - ethical leadership scale - developed by Brown et al. One of the items in this range was: The questionnaire on goal commitment was based on the instrument developed by Hollenbeck, Williams and Kleinand was also answered by the clerks. Here is an example of an item in this range: The quality of the relationship between leaders and followers LMX was evaluated through the scale developed by Bauer and Green and one of its items was: In this study, the evaluation of individual performance was made through quantitative and qualitative metrics.
The quantitative metric used was the average of the percentage of hit targets in the previous three months, which was provided by the company. The managers responsible for the participating clerk teams individually evaluated the performance and organizational citizenshipof their subordinates through the scales developed by Williams and Anderson Here is an example of an individual performance scale item: Here is an example of an OCBi scale item "this clerk helps their colleagues when there is a high workload".
Finally, some demographic and biographical variables that were assessed as possible influences could be controlled for in the subsequent analyses.