Nikita Khrushchev - HISTORY
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April – 11 September ) was a Soviet statesman Stalin's death in triggered a power struggle, from which Khrushchev ultimately emerged victorious. . helped Marusia in later years, especially when Marusia's daughter by a previous relationship suffered a fatal illness. Click here to get an answer to your question ✍ Explain khrushchev's relationship to stalinism. Fifty years ago Nikita Khrushchev shocked the Soviet Union by denouncing Stalin in a special address to Communist party comrades. The text.
Everyone who rejoices in the successes achieved in our country, the victories of our party led by the great Stalin, will find only one word suitable for the mercenary, fascist dogs of the Trotskyite- Zinovievite gang. That word is execution. Of the arrestees, according to Khrushchev, 8, deserved execution. The dictator took the confession in his stride, and, after initially advising Khrushchev to keep it quiet, suggested that Khrushchev tell his tale to the Moscow party conference.
Khrushchev did so, to applause, and was immediately reelected to his post. Stalin told Khrushchev of the accusation personally, looking him in the eye and awaiting his response.
Khrushchev speculated in his memoirs that had Stalin doubted his reaction, he would have been categorized as an enemy of the people then and there. The high ranks of the Party were not immune; the Central Committee of Ukraine was so devastated that it could not convene a quorum.What stood behind Khrushchev's anti-Stalinism
After Khrushchev's arrival, the pace of arrests accelerated. Almost all government officials and Red Army commanders were replaced. But we must not allow a single honest Bolshevik to be harmed. We must conduct a struggle against slanderers.
A large number of ethnic Ukrainians lived in the invaded area, much of which today forms the western portion of Ukraine.
Many inhabitants therefore initially welcomed the invasion, though they hoped that they would eventually become independent. Khrushchev's role was to ensure that the occupied areas voted for union with the USSR. Through a combination of propaganda, deception as to what was being voted for, and outright fraud, the Soviets ensured that their new territories would elect assemblies which would unanimously petition for union with the USSR.
Stalin used Khrushchev to keep commanders on a tight leash, while the commanders sought to have him influence Stalin. Handicapped by orders from Stalin that under no circumstances should the city be abandoned, the Red Army was soon encircled by the Germans. According to Marshal Georgi Zhukovwriting some years after Khrushchev fired and disgraced him inKhrushchev persuaded Stalin not to evacuate troops from Kiev.
But let me return to the enemy breakthrough in the Kiev area, the encirclement of our group, and the destruction of the 37th Army. Later, the Fifth Army also perished All of this was senseless, and from the military point of view, a display of ignorance, incompetence, and illiteracy. There you have the result of not taking a step backward. We were unable to save these troops because we didn't withdraw them, and as a result we simply lost them. And yet it was possible to allow this not to happen.
The Germans, however, had deduced that the Soviets were likely to attack at Kharkovand set a trap. Beginning on 12 Maythe Soviet offensive initially appeared successful, but within five days the Germans had driven deep into the Soviet flanks, and the Red Army troops were in danger of being cut off.
Stalin refused to halt the offensive, and the Red Army divisions were soon encircled by the Germans. While Stalin hinted at arresting and executing Khrushchev, he allowed the commissar to return to the front by sending him to Stalingrad. He proposed a counterattackonly to find that Zhukov and other generals had already planned Operation Uranusa plan to break out from Soviet positions and encircle and destroy the Germans; it was being kept secret.
Before Uranus was launched, Khrushchev spent much time checking on troop readiness and morale, interrogating Nazi prisoners, and recruiting some for propaganda purposes.
The circumstances of Leonid's death remain obscure and controversial,  as none of his fellow fliers stated that they witnessed him being shot down, nor was his plane found or body recovered. As a result, Leonid's fate has been the subject of considerable speculation. One theory has Leonid surviving the crash and collaborating with the Germans, and when he was recaptured by the Soviets, Stalin ordering him shot despite Nikita Khrushchev pleading for his life.
Khrushchev biographer Taubman speculates that this omission was most likely to avoid the possibility of being seen as complicit in the death of the son of a Politburo member. Leonid's daughter, Yulia, was raised by Nikita Khrushchev and his wife. He was attached to Soviet troops at the Battle of Kurskin Julywhich turned back the last major German offensive on Soviet soil.
He was appointed Premier of the Ukrainian SSR in addition to his earlier party post, one of the rare instances in which the Ukrainian party and civil leader posts were held by one person. However, Tompson points to the fact that the few mentions of Khrushchev in military memoirs published during the Brezhnev era were generally favorable, at a time when it was "barely possible to mention Khrushchev in print in any context".
The secret speech that changed world history
Ukraine's industry had been destroyed, and agriculture faced critical shortages. Even though millions of Ukrainians had been taken to Germany as workers or prisoners of war, there was insufficient housing for those who remained. He made a short visit to his birthplace of Kalinovka, finding a starving population, with only a third of the men who had joined the Red Army having returned. Khrushchev did what he could to assist his hometown.
Khrushchev viewed this policy as very effective, and recommended its adoption elsewhere to Stalin.
- Nikita Khrushchev
- Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)
While Khrushchev hoped to accomplish this bylack of resources and armed resistance by partisans slowed the process. The inevitable starvation was largely confined to remote rural regions, and was little noticed outside the USSR. When letters to Stalin had no effect, Khrushchev flew to Moscow and made his case in person. Stalin finally gave Ukraine limited food aid, and money to set up free soup kitchens. In his memoirs, Khrushchev indicates he had pneumonia; some biographers have theorized that Khrushchev's illness was entirely political, out of fear that his loss of position was the first step towards downfall and demise.
Once Khrushchev was able to get out of bed, he and his family took their first vacation since before the war, to a beachfront resort in Latvia. These sometimes backfired, however: He completed only one such town before his December return to Moscow; he dedicated it to Stalin as a 70th birthday present. I'll say that the Ukrainian people treated me well. I recall warmly the years I spent there.
This was a period full of responsibilities, but pleasant because it brought satisfaction But far be it from me to inflate my significance. The entire Ukrainian people was exerting great efforts I attribute Ukraine's successes to the Ukrainian people as a whole.
I won't elaborate further on this theme, but in principle it's very easy to demonstrate. I'm Russian myself, and I don't want to offend the Russians. Khrushchev biographer Taubman suggests that Stalin most likely recalled Khrushchev to Moscow to balance the influence of Georgy Malenkov and security chief Lavrentiy Beriawho were widely seen as Stalin's heirs. Political career under Stalin In Khrushchev went into full-time party work as party secretary of the Petrovsko-Mariinsk district of Yuzovka.
He distinguished himself by his hard work and knowledge of mine and factory conditions. For the next four years—in Yuzovka, then in Kharkov now Kharkiv and Kiev—Khrushchev was active as a party organizer. In he received permission to go to Moscow to study metallurgy at the Stalin Industrial Academy.
In he went back to full-time party work in Moscow. By he had become second secretary of the Moscow Regional Committee. During the early s Khrushchev consolidated his hold on the Moscow party cadres.
The secret speech that changed world history | World news | The Guardian
He supervised the completion of the Moscow subway, for which he received the Order of Lenin in That year he became first secretary of the Moscow city and regional party organization—in effect, the governor of Moscow.
Khrushchev was a zealous supporter of Stalin in those years and participated in the purges of party leadership. He was one of only three provincial secretaries who survived the mass executions of the Great Purge of the s. A year later Khrushchev was made a candidate member of the Politburo and sent to Kiev as first secretary of the Ukrainian party organization.
In he was made a full member of the Politburo. His principal objective was to liquidate both the Polish and Ukrainian nationalist movements, as well as to restore the Communist Party organization in Ukraine, which had been shattered in the Great Purge. This work was disrupted by the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June Thereafter he was attached to the Soviet army with the rank of lieutenant general; his principal task was to stimulate the resistance of the civilian population and maintain liaison with Stalin and other members of the Politburo.
He was political adviser to Marshal Andrey I. Vatutin during the huge tank battle at Kursk. After the liberation of Ukraine inKhrushchev reassumed control of Ukraine as first secretary of the Ukrainian party organization.
He worked to restore the civil administration and to bring that devastated country back to a subsistence level. During this period Khrushchev gained a firsthand acquaintance with the problems of Soviet agricultural scarcity and planning. His innovations were rejected inhowever, when responsibility for agriculture was transferred to Georgy M. Khrushchev soon gained the decisive margin by his control of the party machinery.
In September he replaced Malenkov as first secretary and in removed Malenkov from the premiership in favour of his handpicked nominee, Marshal Nikolay A.
Significantly, by Khrushchev had been able to reform the Stalinist security apparatus by subordinating it to the top party leadership. Later, in trips to Geneva, Afghanistan, and India, he began to exhibit a brash, extroverted personal diplomacy that was to become his trademark.
Although his attacks on world capitalism were virulent and primitive, his outgoing personality and peasant humour were in sharp contrast to the image earlier Soviet public figures had cultivated.
Bulganin, and Igor V. Kurchatov aboard a Soviet ship, Portsmouth, England, Nonetheless, by smashing the repressive icon of Stalinism and the mentality of terror that had been imposed on the general population, Khrushchev inspired a new intellectual ferment and widespread hopes for greater freedom, particularly among students and intellectuals. Inevitably, the de-Stalinization movement had repercussions in the communist countries of eastern Europe.
Poland revolted against its government in October Hungary followed shortly afterward.
Aside from this sanguinary exception, Khrushchev allowed a considerable amount of freedom to the European communist parties. The stresses in eastern Europe helped crystallize opposition to Khrushchev within the Soviet Communist Party.
In June he was almost overthrown from his position, and, although a vote in the Presidium i. Molotovand others, who were labeled members of the antiparty group.
A few months later, in October, he dismissed Marshal Georgy Zhukov from his post as minister of defense.