Boyfriend - Wikipedia
A boyfriend is a male friend or acquaintance, often specifying a regular male companion with whom one is platonic, romantically or sexually involved. This is normally a short-term committed relationship, where other titles (e.g., Word history. The word dating entered the American language during the Roaring Twenties. Synonyms for long-standing at irobot-roomba.info with free online thesaurus, antonyms, Find descriptive alternatives for long-standing. Word Origin & History. History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of .. the material conditions at any given time – in other words, the relationships which people have with each other in.
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Four of the most famous Sanskrit linguists are: They followed a line of ancient grammarians of Sanskrit who lived several centuries earlier like Sakatayana of whom very little is known. The earliest of attested etymologies can be found in Vedic literature in the philosophical explanations of the BrahmanasAranyakasand Upanishads.
The analyses of Sanskrit grammar done by the previously mentioned linguists involved extensive studies on the etymology called Nirukta or Vyutpatti in Sanskrit of Sanskrit words, because the ancient Indo-Aryans considered sound and speech itself to be sacred and, for them, the words of the sacred Vedas contained deep encoding of the mysteries of the soul and God.
Ancient Greco-Roman[ edit ] One of the earliest philosophical texts of the Classical Greek period to address etymology was the Socratic dialogue Cratylus c. During much of the dialogue, Socrates makes guesses as to the origins of many words, including the names of the gods.
In his Odes Pindar spins complimentary etymologies to flatter his patrons. Plutarch Life of Numa Pompilius spins an etymology for pontifexwhile explicitly dismissing the obvious, and actual "bridge-builder": Others make the word refer to exceptions of impossible cases; the priests were to perform all the duties possible to them; if anything lay beyond their power, the exception was not to be cavilled at. The most common opinion is the most absurd, which derives this word from pons, and assigns the priests the title of bridge-makers.
The sacrifices performed on the bridge were amongst the most sacred and ancient, and the keeping and repairing of the bridge attached, like any other public sacred office, to the priesthood. Medieval etymology Isidore of Seville compiled a volume of etymologies to illuminate the triumph of religion. Each saint's legend in Jacob de Voragine 's Legenda Aurea begins with an etymological discourse on the saint's name: Lucy is said of light, and light is beauty in beholding, after that S.
AroundGerman philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past.
Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data. The 19th-century historian with greatest influence on methods was Leopold von Ranke in Germany.
In the 20th century, academic historians focused less on epic nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or great mento more objective and complex analyses of social and intellectual forces. A major trend of historical methodology in the 20th century was a tendency to treat history more as a social science rather than as an artwhich traditionally had been the case. Some of the leading advocates of history as a social science were a diverse collection of scholars which included Fernand BraudelE.
Many of the advocates of history as a social science were or are noted for their multi-disciplinary approach. Braudel combined history with geography, Bracher history with political science, Fogel history with economics, Gay history with psychology, Trigger history with archaeology while Wehler, Bloch, Fischer, Stone, Febvre and Le Roy Ladurie have in varying and differing ways amalgamated history with sociology, geography, anthropology, and economics.
More recently, the field of digital history has begun to address ways of using computer technology to pose new questions to historical data and generate digital scholarship. In opposition to the claims of history as a social science, historians such as Hugh Trevor-RoperJohn LukacsDonald CreightonGertrude Himmelfarb and Gerhard Ritter argued that the key to the historians' work was the power of the imaginationand hence contended that history should be understood as an art.
French historians associated with the Annales School introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history cf. Intellectual historians such as Herbert ButterfieldErnst Nolte and George Mosse have argued for the significance of ideas in history. American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups.
Scholars such as Martin BroszatIan Kershaw and Detlev Peukert sought to examine what everyday life was like for ordinary people in 20th-century Germany, especially in the Nazi period. Marxist historians such as Eric HobsbawmE.
Mayer and Christopher Hill have sought to validate Karl Marx 's theories by analyzing history from a Marxist perspective. In recent years, postmodernists have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources.
Evans defended the worth of history. Another defence of history from post-modernist criticism was the Australian historian Keith Windschuttle 's book, The Killing of History. Marxian theory of history Main article: Gender history is related and covers the perspective of gender. Periodization Historical study often focuses on events and developments that occur in particular blocks of time.
Historians give these periods of time names in order to allow "organising ideas and classificatory generalisations" to be used by historians. Centuries and decades are commonly used periods and the time they represent depends on the dating system used. Most periods are constructed retrospectively and so reflect value judgments made about the past. The way periods are constructed and the names given to them can affect the way they are viewed and studied.
The usual method for periodisation of the distant prehistoric past, in archaeology is to rely on changes in material culture and technology, such as the Stone AgeBronze Age and Iron Age and their sub-divisions also based on different styles of material remains.
Etymology - Wikipedia
Here prehistory is divided into a series of "chapters" so that periods in history could unfold not only in a relative chronology but also narrative chronology.
There are periodisation, however, that do not have this narrative aspect, relying largely on relative chronology and, thus, devoid of any specific meaning. Despite the development over recent decades of the ability through radiocarbon dating and other scientific methods to give actual dates for many sites or artefacts, these long-established schemes seem likely to remain in use.
In many cases neighbouring cultures with writing have left some history of cultures without it, which may be used. Periodisation, however, is not viewed as a perfect framework with one account explaining that "cultural changes do not conveniently start and stop combinedly at periodisation boundaries" and that different trajectories of change are also needed to be studied in their own right before they get intertwined with cultural phenomena.
Understanding why historic events took place is important.
To do this, historians often turn to geography. According to Jules Michelet in his book Histoire de France"without geographical basis, the people, the makers of history, seem to be walking on air. For example, to explain why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, studying the geography of Egypt is essential.
Egyptian civilization was built on the banks of the Nile River, which flooded each year, depositing soil on its banks.
The rich soil could help farmers grow enough crops to feed the people in the cities.
That meant everyone did not have to farm, so some people could perform other jobs that helped develop the civilization. There is also the case of climate, which historians like Ellsworth Huntington and Allen Semple, cited as a crucial influence on the course of history and racial temperament.
History of North America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's northern and western hemisphere. History of Central America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's western hemisphere.
History of the Caribbean begins with the oldest evidence where 7,year-old remains have been found. History of South America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's southern and western hemisphere. History of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe.Does Your Relationship History Matter? - Word On The Street
History of Australia starts with the documentation of the Makassar trading with Indigenous Australians on Australia's north coast. History of the Pacific Islands covers the history of the islands in the Pacific Ocean.
History of Eurasia is the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions: History of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day. History of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe.